American social networking service
This article is about the social networking service. For the company which owns and operates it, see Twitter, Inc.
“Tweeting” and “Tweeted” redirect here. For the animal behavior, see Bird vocalization.

Twitter is a microblogging, social networking service owned by American company Twitter, Inc., on which users post and interact with messages known as “tweets”. Registered users can post, like, and retweet tweets, while unregistered users only have the ability to read public tweets. Users interact with Twitter through browser or mobile frontend software, or programmatically via its APIs. Before April 2020, services were accessible via SMS.[8] Tweets were originally restricted to 140 characters, but the limit was doubled to 280 for non-CJK languages in November 2017.[9] Audio and video tweets remain limited to 140 seconds for most accounts.
Twitter was created by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams in March 2006 and launched in July of that year. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco, California and has more than 25 offices around the world.[10] By 2012[update], more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day,[11] and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day.[12][13][14] In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as “the SMS of the Internet”.[15] By the start of 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users.[16] In practice, the vast majority of tweets are written by a minority of users.[17][18] In 2020, it was estimated that approximately 48 million accounts (15% of all accounts) were fake.[19]
On April 25, 2022, in one of the biggest deals to take a company private, the board of directors agreed to a $44 billion takeover by South African born American businessman Elon Musk.[20][21] After months of controversy and legal battles, the deal closed on October 27.[22][23] Following Musk’s takeover, Twitter has been criticized for increasingly promoting hate speech[24][25] and allowing misinformation to spread,[26][27] which coincided with mass firings.[28] The platform has subsequently been abandoned by many of its top advertisers and long-time users, including many celebrities.[29]


2006–2007: Creation and initial reaction

Twitter’s origins lie in a “daylong brainstorming session” held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey, then an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group.[30][31] The original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams later ascribed to Noah Glass,[32] inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was also partly due to the fact that the domain was already in use, and it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.[33] The developers initially considered “10958” as the service’s short code for SMS text messaging, but later changed it to “40404” for “ease of use and memorability”.[34] Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 12:50 p.m. PST (UTC−08:00): “just setting up my twttr”.[1] Dorsey has explained the origin of the “Twitter” title:[35]

…we came across the word “twitter”, and it was just perfect. The definition was “a short burst of inconsequential information”, and “chirps from birds”. And that’s exactly what the product was.

The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees.[36] The full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006.[6] In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets—including and—from the investors and shareholders.[37] Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitter’s startup until 2011.[38] Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.[39] Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview:[40]

With Twitter, it wasn’t clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn’t replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network.

The tipping point for Twitter’s popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive (SXSWi) conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.[41] “The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages,” remarked Newsweek’s Steven Levy. “Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters. Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, and the bloggers in attendance touted it.”[42] Reaction at the conference was highly positive.[43] Twitter staff received the festival’s Web Award prize with the remark “we’d like to thank you in 140 characters or less. And we just did!”[44]
The company experienced rapid initial growth. It had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day.[45] In 2009, Twitter won the “Breakout of the Year” Webby Award.[46][47] On November 29, 2009, Twitter was named the Word of the Year by the Global Language Monitor, declaring it “a new form of social interaction”.[48] By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications.[49] As of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter.[50] As of March 2011, that was about 140 million tweets posted daily.[51] As noted on, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site in January 2009 from its previous rank of twenty-second.[52]

Twitter’s usage spikes during prominent events. For example, a record was set during the 2010 FIFA World Cup when fans wrote 2,940 tweets per second in the thirty-second period after Japan scored against Cameroon on June 14, 2010. The record was broken again when 3,085 tweets per second were posted after the Los Angeles Lakers’ victory in the 2010 NBA Finals on June 17, 2010,[53] and then again at the close of Japan’s victory over Denmark in the World Cup when users published 3,283 tweets per second.[54] The record was set again during the 2011 FIFA Women’s World Cup Final between Japan and the United States, when 7,196 tweets per second were published.[55] When American singer Michael Jackson died on June 25, 2009, Twitter servers crashed after users were updating their status to include the words “Michael Jackson” at a rate of 100,000 tweets per hour.[56] The current record as of August 3, 2013, was set in Japan, with 143,199 tweets per second during a television screening of the movie Castle in the Sky[57] (beating the previous record of 33,388, also set by Japan for the television screening of the same movie).[58]
The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010.[59] By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts’ communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has also hosted over 25 “tweetups”, events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants’ social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA.
Twitter acquired application developer Atebits on April 11, 2010. Atebits had developed the Apple Design Award-winning Twitter client Tweetie for the Mac and iPhone. The application, now called “Twitter” and distributed free of charge, became the official Twitter client for the iPhone, iPad and Mac.[60]

From September through October 2010, the company began rolling out “New Twitter”, an entirely revamped edition of Changes included the ability to see pictures and videos without leaving Twitter itself by clicking on individual tweets which contain links to images and clips from a variety of supported websites, including YouTube and Flickr, and a complete overhaul of the interface, which shifted links such as ‘@mentions’ and ‘Retweets’ above the Twitter stream, while ‘Messages’ and ‘Log Out’ became accessible via a black bar at the very top of As of November 1, 2010, the company confirmed that the “New Twitter experience” had been rolled out to all users. In 2019, Twitter was announced to be the 10th most downloaded mobile app of the decade, from 2010 to 2019.[61]
On April 5, 2011, Twitter tested a new homepage and phased out the “Old Twitter”.[62] However, a glitch came about after the page was launched, so the previous “retro” homepage was still in use until the issues were resolved; the new homepage was reintroduced on April 20.[63][64] On December 8, 2011, Twitter overhauled its website once more to feature the “Fly” design, which the service says is easier for new users to follow and promotes advertising. In addition to the Home tab, the Connect and Discover tabs were introduced along with a redesigned profile and timeline of Tweets. The site’s layout has been compared to that of Facebook.[65][66] On February 21, 2012, it was announced that Twitter and Yandex agreed to a partnership. Yandex, a Russian search engine, finds value within the partnership due to Twitter’s real time news feeds. Twitter’s director of business development explained that it is important to have Twitter content where Twitter users go.[67] On March 21, 2012, Twitter celebrated its sixth birthday while also announcing that it had 140 million users and 340 million tweets per day. The number of users was up 40% from their September 2011 number, which was said to have been at 100 million at the time.[68]
On June 5, 2012, a modified logo was unveiled through the company blog, removing the text to showcase the slightly redesigned bird as the sole symbol of Twitter.[69][70] On December 18, 2012, Twitter announced it had surpassed 200 million monthly active users. Twitter hit 100 million monthly active users in September 2011.[71]
On January 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Crashlytics in order to build out its mobile developer products.[72] On April 18, 2013, Twitter launched a music app called Twitter Music for the iPhone.[73] On August 28, 2013, Twitter acquired Trendrr,[74] followed by the acquisition of MoPub on September 9, 2013.[75] As of September 2013, the company’s data showed that 200 million users sent over 400 million tweets daily, with nearly 60% of tweets sent from mobile devices.[76]
During Super Bowl XLVII on February 3, 2013, the power went out in the Mercedes-Benz Superdome Mondelez International vice president Lisa Mann was asked to tweet, “You can still dunk in the dark”, referring to Oreo cookies. She approved, and as she told Ad Age in 2020, “literally the world changed when I woke up the next morning.” This became a milestone in the development of commenting daily on culture.[77]

In April 2014, Twitter underwent a redesign that made the site resemble Facebook somewhat, with profile picture and biography in a column left to the timeline, and a full-width header image with parallax scrolling effect.[a] That layout was used as main for the desktop front end until July 2019, undergoing changes over time such as removal of shortcut buttons to jump to the previous or next tweet in early 2017, and rounded profile pictures since June 2017.[78][79][80]
In April 2015, the desktop homepage changed.[81] Later in the year it became apparent that growth had slowed, according to Fortune,[82] Business Insider,[83] Marketing Land[84] and other news websites including Quartz (in 2016).[85]
Since May 2018, tweet replies deemed by an algorithm to be detractive from conversation are initially hidden, and only loaded through actuating a “Show more replies” element at the bottom.[86]
In 2019, Twitter released another redesign of its user interface[87] and ended support for TLS 1.0 and 1.1 connections.[88]

The two tweets on May 26, 2020, from President Trump that Twitter had marked “potentially misleading” (inserting the blue warning icon and “Get the facts…” language) that led to the executive orderTwitter experienced considerable growth during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020.[89] The platform also was increasingly used for misinformation related to the pandemic.[90] Twitter started marking tweets which contained misleading information, and adding links to fact-checks.[91] In May 2020, Twitter moderators marked two tweets from U.S. President Donald Trump as “potentially misleading” and linked to a fact-check.[92] Trump responded by signing an executive order to weaken Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which limits social media sites’ liability for content moderation decisions.[93][94][95] Twitter later banned Trump, claiming that he violated “the glorification of violence policy”.[96] The ban was criticized by conservatives and some European leaders, who saw it as an interference on freedom of speech.[97]
On June 5, 2021, the Nigerian government issued an indefinite ban on Twitter usage in the country, citing “misinformation and fake news spread through it have had real world violent consequences”,[98] after the platform removed tweets made by the Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari.[99] Nigeria’s ban was criticized by Amnesty International.[100]
In 2021, Twitter began the research phase of Bluesky, an open source decentralized social media protocol where users can choose which algorithmic curation they want.[101][102] The same year, Twitter also released Twitter Spaces, a social audio feature;[103][104] “super follows”, a way to subscribe to creators for exclusive content;[105] and a beta of “ticketed Spaces”, which makes access to certain audio rooms paid.[106] Twitter unveiled a redesign in August 2021, with adjusted colors and a new Chirp font, which improves the left-alignment of most Western languages.[107]

Since 2022
In June 2022, Twitter announced a partnership with e-commerce giant Shopify, and its plans to launch a sales channel app for U.S. Shopify merchants.[108]

Acquisition by Elon Musk

Business magnate Elon Musk began speaking of buying Twitter, Inc. in early 2022, stating his concerns with the company’s commitment to free speech and whether Twitter’s moderation policies were undermining democracy.[109] Musk reportedly planned major changes to Twitter’s treatment of spambots, a more lenient content moderation policy, revamp of its offered services, and cost cuts. In the long-run, Musk expressed an intention to turn Twitter into an “everything app” like WeChat.[110]
Initially, Musk sought a position on the Twitter, Inc. Board of Directors by buying shares of the company, but the Board created a “poison pill” to prevent Musk from gaining sufficient shares. Subsequently, Musk made an unsolicited offer to buy Twitter, Inc. for $43 billion on April 14, 2022. This process went through a number of business and legal confrontations, but ultimately, Musk completed the acquisition on October 27, 2022, for $44 billion.[109] Musk immediately fired the top three Twitter executives.[111] About a week later, he began laying off about half of the company’s approximately 7,500 employees.[112]
A week after the takeover, Musk revamped Twitter Blue, increasing its price to $8 per month and adding new features, including the “blue checkmark” verification that had previously been reserved for high-profile confirmed users. This plan was criticized by several outlets, fearing that the potential for misinformation would increase since anyone could pay to appear to be verified through Twitter Blue. Musk opted to delay the changes to blue checkmarks until after the 2022 midterm elections in the U.S. over these concerns, and stated that accounts that were faking identities, outside of parody accounts, would be terminated.[113] Following the takeover, various brands and companies paused advertising on the platform.[114]
Musk undid the prior ban on Donald Trump on November 19, 2022, following a poll Musk posted in favor of lifting the ban.[115] Musk also unbanned other notable accounts that had been banned for misinformation previously, including The Babylon Bee and Jordan Peterson.[116] Musk also unbanned Kanye West, but a few weeks later re-instituted his ban after he posted a series of tweets that Musk said were incitement to violence, including one that posted a swastika within the Jewish star.[117]
During December 2022, Musk provided internal documentation to a number of independent journalists and writers which were then publicly disseminated through a series of posts known as the “Twitter Files”. The files describe internal discussion as related to Twitter’s moderation steps in events such as the breaking of the Hunter Biden laptop story, shadow banning of some conservative commentators’ accounts, and the decision to block Trump. While some on the right saw the documents as evidence of Twitter’s liberal bias and hostility to free speech, many people on the left described them as a reflection of how difficult it is for social media platforms to make tough decisions about content moderation.[118][119][120]

Whistleblower complaint
On August 23, 2022, the contents of a whistleblower complaint by former information security head Peiter Zatko to the United States Congress were published. Zatko had been fired by Twitter in January 2022. The complaint alleges that Twitter failed to disclose several data breaches, had negligent security measures, violated United States securities regulations, and broke the terms of a previous settlement with the Federal Trade Commission over the safeguarding of user data. The report also claims that the Indian government forced Twitter to hire one of its agents to gain direct access to user data.[121]

Banning journalists who report on Musk
The Twitter accounts of a number of journalists were permanently suspended on December 15, 2022. These journalists, including Mashable’s Matt Binder, Aaron Rupar, The New York Times’ Ryan Mac, and CNN’s Donie O’Sullivan, have covered Twitter and recently wrote articles about Musk’s takeover. Several of the reporters had recently tweeted about the controversy over Musk’s banning of ElonJet and other accounts which track private jets.[122][123] In response, Twitter Head of Trust and Safety Ella Irwin told The Verge “we will suspend any accounts that violate our privacy policies and put other users at risk.”[124] Binder denied violating any of Twitter’s policies, saying “I did not share any location data, as per Twitter’s new terms. Nor did I share any links to ElonJet or other location tracking accounts.”[125] CNN journalist Oliver Darcy wrote that the bannings “called into serious question Musk’s supposed commitment to free speech.”[123]

Appearance and features

The Twitter account page for Wikipedia, demonstrating the account-customized timeline view which shows tweets in reverse chronological order
Tweets are publicly visible by default, but senders can restrict message delivery to only their followers. Users can mute users they do not wish to interact with, block accounts from viewing their tweets, and remove accounts from their followers list.[126][127][128] Users can tweet via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as for smartphones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries.[129] Users may subscribe to other users’ tweets—this is known as “following” and subscribers are known as “followers”[130] or “tweeps”, a portmanteau of Twitter and peeps.[131] Individual tweets can be forwarded by other users to their own feed, a process known as a “retweet”. In 2015, Twitter launched “quote tweet” (originally called “retweet with comment”),[132] a feature that allows users to add a comment to their retweet, nesting one tweet in the other.[133] Users can also “like” (formerly “favorite”) individual tweets.[134]
The counters for “likes”, “retweets”, and replies appear next to the respective buttons in timelines such as on profile pages and search results. Counters for likes and retweets exist on a tweet’s standalone page too. Since September 2020, quote tweets, formerly known as “retweet with comment”, have their own counter on their tweet page.[132] Until the legacy desktop front end that was discontinued in 2020, a row with miniature profile pictures of up to ten liking or retweeting users was displayed (earliest documented implementation in December 2011 overhaul), as well as a tweet reply counter next to the according button on a tweet’s page.[135][136]
Twitter allows users to update their profile via their mobile phone either by text messaging or by apps released for certain smartphones and tablets.[137] Twitter has been compared to a web-based Internet Relay Chat (IRC) client.[138] In a 2009 Time magazine essay, technology author Steven Johnson described the basic mechanics of Twitter as “remarkably simple”:

As a social network, Twitter revolves around the principle of followers. When you choose to follow another Twitter user, that user’s tweets appear in reverse chronological order on your main Twitter page. If you follow 20 people, you’ll see a mix of tweets scrolling down the page: breakfast-cereal updates, interesting new links, music recommendations, even musings on the future of education.[139]
Twitter announced in a tweet on September 1, 2022, that the ability to edit a tweet was being tested for a few users. The company said the feature was being tested first to determine whether it could be abused. Editing would be allowed for 30 minutes, and previous versions of an edited post would be available. Eventually, all Twitter Blue subscribers would be able to use the feature.[140]

Hashtags, usernames, retweets and replies
“Twitter hashtag” redirects here. For more about hashtags, see Hashtag.

Users can group posts together by topic or type by use of hashtags – words or phrases prefixed with a “#” sign. Similarly, the “@” sign followed by a username is used for mentioning or replying to other users.[141]
In 2014, in anticipation for the FIFA World Cup, Twitter introduced hashflags, special hashtags that automatically generate a custom emoji next to them for a certain period of time, following the success of a similar campaign during the 2010 World Cup.[142] Hashflags may be generated by Twitter themselves (such as to raise awareness for social issues)[143] or be purchased by corporations (such as to promote products and events).[144]
To repost a message from another Twitter user and share it with one’s own followers, a user can click the retweet button within the Tweet. Users can reply to other accounts’ replies. Since November 2019, users can hide replies to their messages. Since May 2020, users can select who can reply to each of their tweets before sending them: anyone, accounts who follow the poster, specific accounts, and none. This ability was upgraded in July 2021 to make the feature retroactively applicable to tweets after they have been sent out.[145][146]

Using SMS
Through SMS, users can communicate with Twitter through five gateway numbers: short codes for the United States, Canada, India, New Zealand, and an Isle of Man-based number for international use. There is also a short code in the United Kingdom which is only accessible to those on the Vodafone, O2[147] and Orange[148] networks. In India, since Twitter only supports tweets from Bharti Airtel,[149] an alternative platform called smsTweet[150] was set up by a user to work on all networks.[151] A similar platform called GladlyCast exists for mobile phone users in Singapore and Malaysia.[152]
The tweets were set to a largely constrictive 140-character limit for compatibility with SMS messaging, introducing the shorthand notation and slang commonly used in SMS messages. The 140-character limit also increased the usage of URL shortening services such as,,,, and other content-hosting services such as TwitPic, and NotePub to accommodate multimedia content and text longer than 140 characters. Since June 2011, Twitter has used its own domain for automatic shortening of all URLs posted on its site, making other link shorteners unnecessary for staying within Twitter’s 140 character limit.[153][154]
In April 2020, Twitter discontinued the ability to receive SMS messages containing the text of new tweets in most countries.[155][156]

Character limits
In 2016, Twitter announced that media such as photos, videos, and the person’s handle, would not count against the already constrictive 140 character limit. A user photo post used to count for a large chunk of a Tweet, about 24 characters.[157] Attachments and links would also no longer be part of the character limit.[158]
Since March 30, 2017, the Twitter handles are outside the tweet itself, therefore they no longer count towards the character limit.[159] Only new Twitter handles added to the conversation count towards the limit.
In 2017, Twitter doubled its historical 140-character-limitation to 280.[160] Under the new limit, glyphs are counted as a variable number of characters, depending upon the script they are from: most European letters and punctuation forms count as one character, while each CJK glyph counts as two so that only 140 such glyphs can be used in a tweet.[160]

URL shortener is a URL shortening service created by Twitter.[153] It is only available for links posted to Twitter and not available for general use.[153] All links posted to Twitter use a wrapper.[161] Twitter hopes that the service will be able to protect users from malicious sites,[153] and will use it to track clicks on links within tweets.[153][162]
Having used the services of third parties TinyURL and,[163] Twitter began experimenting with its own URL shortening service for private messages in March 2010 using the domain,[161] before it purchased the domain.[161] On June 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it was rolling out the feature.[154]

Integrated photo-sharing service
On June 1, 2011, Twitter announced its own integrated photo-sharing service that enables users to upload a photo and attach it to a Tweet right from[164] Users now also have the ability to add pictures to Twitter’s search by adding hashtags to the tweet.[165] Twitter also plans to provide photo galleries designed to gather and syndicate all photos that a user has uploaded on Twitter and third-party services such as TwitPic.[165]
On March 29, 2016, Twitter introduced the ability to add a caption of up to 480 characters to each image attached to a tweet,[166][167] accessible via screen reading software or by hovering the mouse above a picture inside TweetDeck. In April 2022, Twitter made the ability to add and view captions globally available. Descriptions can be added to any uploaded image with a limit of 1000 characters. Images that have a description will feature a badge that says ALT in the bottom left corner, which will bring up the description when clicked.[168]

In 2015, Twitter began to roll out the ability to attach poll questions to tweets. Polls are open for up to 7 days, and voters are not personally identified.[169] Initially, polls could have only two options with a maximum of twenty characters per option. Later,[when?] the ability to add four options with up to 25 characters per option, was added.

Non-tweet content
Streaming video
In 2016, Twitter began to place a larger focus on live streaming video programming, hosting various events including streams of the Republican and Democratic conventions during the U.S. presidential campaign as part of a partnership with CBS News,[170] Dreamhack and ESL esports events,[171] and winning a bid for non-exclusive streaming rights to ten NFL Thursday Night Football games in the 2016 season.[171][172]
During an event in New York in May 2017, Twitter announced that it planned to construct a 24-hour streaming video channel hosted within the service, featuring content from various partners.[171][173] CEO Jack Dorsey stated that the digital video strategy was part of a goal for Twitter to be “the first place that anyone hears of anything going on that matters to them”; as of the first quarter of 2017, Twitter had over 200 content partners, who streamed over 800 hours of video over 450 events.[174]
Twitter announced a number of new and expanded partnerships for its streaming video services at the event, including Bloomberg, BuzzFeed, Cheddar (Opening Bell and Closing Bell shows; the latter was introduced in October 2016) IMG Fashion (coverage of fashion events), Live Nation Entertainment (streaming concert events), Major League Baseball (weekly online game stream, plus a weekly program with live look-ins and coverage of trending stories), MTV and BET (red carpet coverage for their MTV Video Music Awards, MTV Movie & TV Awards, and BET Awards), NFL Network (the Monday-Thursday news program NFL Blitz Live, and Sunday Fantasy Gameday),[175][176] the PGA Tour (PGA Tour Live coverage of early tournament rounds preceding television coverage),[177] The Players’ Tribune, Ben Silverman and Howard T. Owens’ Propagate (daily entertainment show #WhatsHappening), The Verge (weekly technology show Circuit Breaker: The Verge’s Gadget Show), Stadium (a new digital sports network being formed by Silver Chalice and Sinclair Broadcast Group)[178][179][180] and the WNBA (weekly game).[174]

Twitter Spaces is a social audio feature that enables users to host or participate in a live-audio virtual environment called space for conversation. Spaces can accommodate an unlimited number of listeners. A maximum of 13 people (1 host, 2 co-hosts and 10 speakers) are allowed onstage. The feature was initially limited to users with at least 600 followers. Since October 21, 2021, any Twitter user can create a Space from the Android or iOS app.[181]

In March 2020, Twitter began to test a stories feature known as “fleets” in some markets,[182][183] which officially launched on November 17, 2020.[184][185] Similarly to equivalent features, fleets can contain text and media, are only accessible for 24 hours after they are posted, and are accessed within the Twitter app via an area above the timeline.[182]
In June 2021, Twitter announced it would start implementing advertising into fleets, integrating full-screen ads among user-created content.[186] On July 14, 2021, Twitter stated that it would remove Fleets by August 3. Twitter had intended for fleets to encourage more users to tweet regularly, rather than simply consume other folks’ tweets, but instead fleets were generally used by users who already tweeted a lot. The company stated that their spot at the top of the screen would now be occupied by currently active Spaces from the user’s feed.[187]

Trending topics

Countries and cities with local trending topics in Twitter
A word, phrase, or topic that is mentioned at a greater rate than others is said to be a “trending topic”. Trending topics become popular either through a concerted effort by users or because of an event that prompts people to talk about a specific topic.[188] These topics help Twitter and their users to understand what is happening in the world and what people’s opinions are about it.[189] The Twitter web interface displays a list of trending topics on a sidebar on the home page, along with sponsored content.
Trending topics are sometimes the result of concerted efforts and manipulations by fans of certain celebrities or cultural phenomena, particularly musicians like Lady Gaga, Justin Bieber, Rihanna and One Direction, and novel series Twilight and Harry Potter. Twitter has altered the trend algorithm in the past to prevent manipulation of this type with limited success.[190] Twitter also censors trending hashtags that are claimed to be abusive or offensive. Twitter censored the #Thatsafrican[191] and #thingsdarkiessay hashtags after users complained that they found the hashtags offensive.[192]

In late 2009, the “Twitter Lists” feature was added, making it possible for users to follow ad hoc lists of users instead of individual users.[130][193]

In October 2015, Twitter introduced “Moments”—a feature that allows users to curate tweets from other users into a larger collection. Twitter initially intended the feature to be used by its in-house editorial team and other partners; they populated a dedicated tab in Twitter’s apps, chronicling news headlines, sporting events, and other content.[194][195] In September 2016, creation of moments became available to all Twitter users.[196]

An October 21, 2021, report based on a “long-running, massive-scale randomized experiment” that analyzed “millions of tweets sent between 1 April and 15 August 2020”, found that Twitter’s machine learning algorithm amplified right-leaning politics on personalized user Home timelines.[197]: 1 [198] The report compared seven countries with active Twitter users where data was available—Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, Japan, France, and Spain—and examined Tweets “from major political groups and politicians”.[197]: 4  Researchers used the 2019 Chapel Hill Expert Survey (CHESDATA) to position parties on political ideology within each country.[197]: 4  The “machine learning algorithms”—introduced by Twitter in 2016—personalized 99% of users’ feeds by displaying Tweets—even older Tweets and Retweets from accounts the user had not directly followed—but that the algorithm had “deemed relevant” to the users’ past preferences.[197]: 4  Twitter randomly chose 1% of users whose Home timelines displayed content in reverse-chronological order from users they directly followed.[197]: 2 


Twitter has mobile apps for iPhone, iPad, and Android.[200] In April 2017, Twitter introduced Twitter Lite, a progressive web app designed for regions with unreliable and slow Internet connections, with a size of less than one megabyte, designed for devices with limited storage capacity.[201][202]

Adding and following content
There are numerous tools for adding content, monitoring content and conversations including Twitter’s own TweetDeck,, HootSuite, and As of 2009[update], fewer than half of tweets posted were posted using the web user interface with most users using third-party applications (based on an analysis of 500 million tweets by Sysomos).[203]

Twitter Blue
On June 3, 2021, Twitter announced a paid subscription service known as Twitter Blue, which provides additional premium features to the service,[204][205] which currently include:

Undo Tweet, which delays the posting of a tweet by up to one minute to allow the submitter to withdraw it before it is posted.[204][206]
Bookmarks, which allows users to save individual tweets into folders.[204]
Reader mode, which converts threads of tweets into an article-like view.[204]
A selection of color themes and app icons for the Twitter mobile app.[204]
Dedicated customer support.[204]
NFT profile pictures, added on January 20, 2022. They are displayed in a hexagon-shaped frame, rather than circular like other profile pictures.[207]
A planned edit feature for tweets was in development as of April 2022.[208]
Customization of the navigation bar.[209]
Verification of paid accounts

In November 2022, Musk announced plans to add account verification and the ability to upload longer audio and video to Twitter Blue. A previous perk offering advertising-free news articles from participating publishers was dropped, but Musk stated that Twitter did want to work with publishers on a similar “paywall bypass” perk.[210][211][212] Musk had pushed for a more expensive version of Twitter Blue following his takeover, arguing that it would be needed to offset a decline in advertising revenue.[213]
The verification marker was included in a premium tier of Twitter Blue introduced on November 9, 2022, priced at US$7.99.[214] On November 11, 2022, after the introduction of this feature led to prominent issues involving accounts using the feature to impersonate public figures and companies, Twitter Blue with verification was temporarily suspended.[215][216] After about a month, Twitter Blue was relaunched on December 12, 2022, though for those purchasing the service through the iOS app store, the cost will be $10.99 a month as to offset the 30% revenue split that Apple takes.[217]

User monetization
In June 2021, the company opened applications for its premium subscription options called Super Follows. This lets eligible accounts charge $2.99, $4.99 or $9.99 per month to subscribe to the account.[218] The launch only generated about $6,000 in its first two weeks.[219]
In May 2021, Twitter began testing a Tip Jar feature on its iOS and Android clients. The feature allows users to send monetary tips to certain accounts, providing a financial incentive for content creators on the platform. The Tip Jar is optional and users can choose whether or not to enable tips for their account.[220] On September 23, 2021, Twitter announced that it will allow users to tip users on the social network with bitcoin. The feature will be available for iOS users. Previously, users could tip with fiat currency using services such as Square’s Cash App and PayPal’s Venmo. Twitter will integrate the Strike bitcoin lightning wallet service. It was noted that at this current time, Twitter will not take a cut of any money sent through the tips feature.[221]
On August 27, 2021, Twitter rolled out Ticketed Spaces, which let Twitter Spaces hosts charge between $1 and $999 for access to their rooms.[222] In April 2022, Twitter announced that it will partner with Stripe, Inc. for piloting cryptocurrency payouts for limited users in the platform. Eligible users of Ticketed Spaces and Super Follows will be able to receive their earnings in the form of USD coin, a stablecoin whose value is that of the U.S. dollar. Users can also hold their earnings in crypto wallets, and then exchange them into other cryptocurrencies.[223]

From 2014 to 2017, Twitter offered a “Buy button” feature, allowing tweets to embed products that could be purchased from within the service. Users could also add their billing and shipping information directly to their accounts. The buy button’s platform partners at launch included Stripe, Gumroad, Musictoday, and The Fancy,[224]
In July 2021, Twitter began testing a “Shop module” for iOS users in the United States, allowing accounts associated with brands to display a carousel of cards on their profiles showcasing products. Unlike the Buy button, where order fulfillment was handed from within Twitter, these cards are external links to online storefronts from which the products may be purchased.[225] In March 2022, Twitter expanded the test to allow companies to showcase up to 50 products on their profiles.[226]
In November 2021, Twitter introduced support for “shoppable” live streams, in which brands can hold streaming events that similarly display banners and pages highlighting products that are featured in the presentation.[227]


Daily user estimates vary as the company does not publish statistics on active accounts. A February 2009 blog entry ranked Twitter as the third most used social network based on their count of 6 million unique monthly visitors and 55 million monthly visits.[52] An April 2017 a blog entry ranked Twitter as the tenth most used social network based on their count of 319 million monthly visitors.[228] Its global user base in 2017 was 328 million.[229]

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (September 2019) Top5 Global Markets by Reach (%)[230][231]



Jun. 2010



Dec. 2010



Jun. 2010



Dec. 2010



Jun. 2010



Dec. 2010



Jun. 2010



Dec. 2010



Jun. 2010



Dec. 2010



Note: Visitor age >15, home and work locations. Excludes visitation from public computers such as Internet cafes or access from mobile phones or PDAs.

In 2009, Twitter was mainly used by older adults who might not have used other social sites before Twitter, said Jeremiah Owyang, an industry analyst studying social media. “Adults are just catching up to what teens have been doing for years”, he said.[232] According to comScore only 11% of Twitter’s users are aged 12 to 17.[232] comScore attributed this to Twitter’s “early adopter period” when the social network first gained popularity in business settings and news outlets attracting primarily older users. However, comScore also stated in 2009 that Twitter had begun to “filter more into the mainstream”, and “along with it came a culture of celebrity as Shaq, Britney Spears and Ashton Kutcher joined the ranks of the Twitterati”.[233]
According to a study by Sysomos in June 2009, women make up a slightly larger Twitter demographic than men—53% over 47%. It also stated that 5% of users accounted for 75% of all activity and that New York City has more Twitter users than other cities.[234]
According to Quancast, 27 million people in the US used Twitter as of September 3, 2009; 63% of Twitter users are under 35 years old; 60% of Twitter users are Caucasian, but a higher than average (compared to other Internet properties) are African American/black (16%) and Hispanic (11%); 58% of Twitter users have a total household income of at least US$60,000.[235] The prevalence of African American Twitter usage and in many popular hashtags has been the subject of research studies.[236][237]
On September 7, 2011, Twitter announced that it had 100 million active users logging in at least once a month and 50 million active users every day.[238] On March 31, 2014, Twitter announced that there were 255 million monthly active users (MAUs) and 198 million mobile MAUs.[239] In 2013, there were over 100 million users actively using Twitter daily and about 500 million tweets every day,[240] with about 29% of users checking Twitter multiple times a day.[241]
As of Q1 2019[update], Twitter had more than 330 million monthly active users. The majority of Twitter users skew to the American political left.[242][243][16]
In 2012, the country with the most active users on Twitter was the United States.[244] A 2016 Pew research poll found that Twitter is used by 24% of all online US adults. It was equally popular with men and women (24% and 25% of online Americans respectively), but more popular with younger (36% of 18–29 year olds) generations.[245]
A 2019 survey conducted by the Pew Foundation found that Twitter users are more likely than the general public to have both a college degree and higher income than the average U.S. adult. Users are also three times as likely to be younger than 50 years old, with the median age of adult U.S. users being 40 years old. The survey found that 10% of users who are most active on Twitter are responsible for 80% of all tweets, focusing mainly on the topics of politics and women.[246]

Content of tweets according to Pear Analytics   News (3.6%)   Spam (3.8%)   Self-promotion (5.9%)   Pointless babble (40.1%)   Conversational (37.6%)   Pass-along value (8.7%)
San Antonio-based market-research firm Pear Analytics analyzed 2,000 tweets (originating from the United States and in English) over a two-week period in August 2009 from 11:00 am to 5:00 pm (CST) and separated them into six categories.[247] Pointless babble made up 40%, with 38% being conversational. Pass-along value had 9%, self-promotion 6% with spam and news each making 4%.
Despite Jack Dorsey’s own open contention that a message on Twitter is “a short burst of inconsequential information”, social networking researcher danah boyd responded to the Pear Analytics survey by arguing that what the Pear researchers labeled “pointless babble” is better characterized as “social grooming” or “peripheral awareness” (which she justifies as persons “want[ing] to know what the people around them are thinking and doing and feeling, even when co-presence isn’t viable”).[248] Similarly, a survey of Twitter users found that a more specific social role of passing along messages that include a hyperlink is an expectation of reciprocal linking by followers.[249]

Levels of use
According to research published in April 2014, around 44% of user accounts have never tweeted.[250] About 22% of Americans say they have ever used Twitter, according to a 2019 Pew Research Center survey.[251] In 2009, Nielsen Online reported that Twitter had a user-retention rate of forty percent. Many people stop using the service after a month; therefore the site may potentially reach only about ten percent of all Internet users.[252] Noting how demographics of Twitter users differ from the average Americans, commentators have cautioned against media narratives that treat Twitter as representative of the population,[253] adding that only 10% of users Tweet actively, and that 90% of Twitter users have Tweeted no more than twice. In 2016, shareholders sued Twitter, alleging it “artificially inflated its stock price by misleading them about user engagement.” The company announced on September 20, 2021, that it would pay $809.5 million to settle this class-action lawsuit.[254]

The Twitter logo from September 14, 2010, to June 5, 2012, featuring the silhouette version of “Larry the Bird”
Twitter has become internationally identifiable by its signature bird logo, or the Twitter Bird. The original logo, which was simply the word Twitter, was in use from its launch in March 2006. It was accompanied by an image of a bird which was later discovered to be a piece of clip art created by the British graphic designer Simon Oxley.[255] A new logo had to be redesigned by founder Biz Stone with help from designer Philip Pascuzzo, which resulted in a more cartoon-like bird in 2009. This version had been named “Larry the Bird” after Larry Bird of the NBA’s Boston Celtics fame.[255][256]
Within a year, the Larry the Bird logo underwent a redesign by Stone and Pascuzzo to eliminate the cartoon features, leaving a solid silhouette of Larry the Bird that was used from 2010 through 2012.[255] In 2012, Douglas Bowman created a further simplified version of Larry the Bird, keeping the solid silhouette but making it more similar to a mountain bluebird.[257] This new logo was called simply the “Twitter Bird” and has been used as the company’s branding since.[255][258]

Revenue sources
Twitter’s San Francisco headquarters located at 1355 Market StreetOn April 13, 2010, Twitter announced plans to offer paid advertising for companies that would be able to purchase “promoted tweets” to appear in selective search results on the Twitter website, similar to Google Adwords’ advertising model.[259][260] Users’ photos can generate royalty-free revenue for Twitter, and an agreement with World Entertainment News Network (WENN) was announced in May 2011.[261] Twitter generated an estimated US$139.5 million in advertising sales during 2011.[262]
In June 2011, Twitter announced that it would offer small businesses a self-service advertising system.[263] The self-service advertising platform was launched in March 2012 to American Express card members and merchants in the U.S. on an invite-only basis.[264] To continue their advertising campaign, Twitter announced on March 20, 2012, that promoted tweets would be introduced to mobile devices.[265] In April 2013, Twitter announced that its Twitter Ads self-service platform, consisting of promoted tweets and promoted accounts, was available to all U.S. users without an invite.[264]
On August 3, 2016, Twitter launched Instant Unlock Card, a new feature that encourages people to tweet about a brand in order to earn rewards and utilize the social media network’s conversational ads. The format itself consists of images or videos with call-to-action buttons and a customizable hashtag.[266]

Advertising bans
In October 2017, Twitter banned the Russian media outlets RT and Sputnik from advertising on their website following the conclusions of the U.S. national intelligence report the previous January that both Sputnik and RT had been used as vehicles for Russia’s interference in the 2016 US presidential election.[267] Maria Zakharova for the Russian foreign ministry said the ban was a “gross violation” by the US of free speech.[268]
In October 2019, Twitter announced it would stop running political ads on its ad platform effective November 22. This resulted from several spurious claims made by political ads. Company CEO Dorsey clarified that internet advertising had great power and was extremely effective for commercial advertisers, the power brings significant risks to politics where crucial decisions impact millions of lives.[269]
In April 2022, Twitter announced a ban on “misleading” advertisements that go against “the scientific consensus on climate change”. While the company did not give full guidelines, it stated that the decisions would be made with the help of “authoritative sources”, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.[270]

Twitter relies on open-source software.[271] The Twitter Web interface uses the Ruby on Rails framework,[272] deployed on a performance enhanced Ruby Enterprise Edition implementation of Ruby.[273][needs update]
In the early days of Twitter, tweets were stored in MySQL databases that were temporally sharded (large databases were split based on time of posting). After the huge volume of tweets coming in caused problems reading from and writing to these databases, the company decided that the system needed re-engineering.[57]
From Spring 2007 to 2008, the messages were handled by a Ruby persistent queue server called Starling.[274] Since 2009, implementation has been gradually replaced with software written in Scala.[275] The switch from Ruby to Scala and the JVM has given Twitter a performance boost from 200 to 300 requests per second per host to around 10,000–20,000 requests per second per host. This boost was greater than the 10x improvement that Twitter’s engineers envisioned when starting the switch. The continued development of Twitter has also involved a switch from monolithic development of a single app to an architecture where different services are built independently and joined through remote procedure calls.[57]
As of April 6, 2011, Twitter engineers confirmed that they had switched away from their Ruby on Rails search stack to a Java server they call Blender.[4]
Individual tweets are registered under unique IDs called snowflakes, and geolocation data is added using ‘Rockdove’. The URL shortener then checks for a spam link and shortens the URL. Next, the tweets are stored in a MySQL database using Gizzard, and the user receives an acknowledgement that the tweets were sent. Tweets are then sent to search engines via the Firehose API. The process is managed by FlockDB and takes an average of 350 ms.[271]
On August 16, 2013, Raffi Krikorian, Twitter’s vice president of platform engineering, shared in a blog post that the company’s infrastructure handled almost 143,000 tweets per second during that week, setting a new record. Krikorian explained that Twitter achieved this record by blending its homegrown and open source technologies.[57][276]

API and developer platform
Twitter is recognized for having one of the most open and powerful developer APIs of any major technology company.[277] The service’s API allows other web services and applications to integrate with Twitter.[278] Developer interest in Twitter began immediately following its launch, prompting the company to release the first version of its public API in September 2006.[279] The API quickly became iconic as a reference implementation for public REST APIs and is widely cited in programming tutorials.[280]
From 2006 until 2010, Twitter’s developer platform experienced strong growth and a highly favorable reputation. Developers built upon the public API to create the first Twitter mobile phone clients as well as the first URL shortener. Between 2010 and 2012, however, Twitter made a number of decisions that were received unfavorably by the developer community.[281] In 2010, Twitter mandated that all developers adopt OAuth authentication with just 9 weeks of notice.[282] Later that year, Twitter launched its own URL shortener, in direct competition with some of its most well-known third-party developers.[283] And in 2012, Twitter introduced stricter usage limits for its API, “completely crippling” some developers.[284][285] While these moves successfully increased the stability and security of the service, they were broadly perceived as hostile to developers, causing them to lose trust in the platform.[286]
In July 2020, Twitter released version 2.0 of the public API[287] and began showcasing Twitter apps made by third-party developers on its Twitter Toolbox section in April 2022.[288]

Innovators patent agreement
On April 17, 2012, Twitter announced it would implement an “Innovators Patent Agreement” which would obligate Twitter to only use its patents for defensive purposes[clarify].[289]

Open source
Twitter has a history of both using and releasing open-source software while overcoming technical challenges of their service.[290] A page in their developer documentation thanks dozens of open-source projects which they have used, from revision control software like Git to programming languages such as Ruby and Scala.[291] Software released as open source by the company includes the Gizzard Scala framework for creating distributed datastores, the distributed graph database FlockDB, the Finagle library for building asynchronous RPC servers and clients, the TwUI user interface framework for iOS, and the Bower client-side package manager.[292] The popular Bootstrap frontend framework was also started at Twitter and is 10th most popular repository on GitHub.[293]

Twitter introduced the first major redesign of its user interface in September 2010, adopting a dual-pane layout with a navigation bar along the top of the screen, and an increased focus on the inline embedding of multimedia content. Critics considered the redesign an attempt to emulate features and experiences found in mobile apps and third-party Twitter clients.[294][295][296][297]
The new layout was revised in 2011 with a focus on continuity with the web and mobile versions, introducing “Connect” (interactions with other users such as replies) and “Discover” (further information regarding trending topics and news headlines) tabs, an updated profile design, and moving all content to the right pane (leaving the left pane dedicated to functions and the trending topics list).[298] In March 2012, Twitter became available in Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu, the first right-to-left language versions of the site.[299] As of August 2012[update], the site available in 33 different languages.[300]
In September 2012, a new layout for profiles was introduced, with larger “covers” that could be customized with a custom header image, and a display of the user’s recent photos posted.[301] The “Discover” tab was discontinued in April 2015,[302] and was succeeded on the mobile app by an “Explore” tab—which features trending topics and moments.[303]
In September 2018, Twitter began to migrate selected web users to its progressive web app (based on its Twitter Lite experience for mobile web), reducing the interface to two columns. Migrations to this iteration of Twitter increased in April 2019, with some users receiving it with a modified layout.[304][305]
In July 2019, Twitter officially released this redesign, with no further option to opt-out while logged in. It is designed to further-unify Twitter’s user experience between the web and mobile application versions, adopting a three-column layout with a sidebar containing links to common areas (including “Explore” that has been merged with the search page) which previously appeared in a horizontal top bar, profile elements such as picture and header images and biography texts merged into the same column as the timeline, and features from the mobile version (such as multi-account support, and an opt-out for the “top tweets” mode on the timeline).[306][307]

In response to early Twitter security breaches, the United States Federal Trade Commission (FTC) brought charges against the service; the charges were settled on June 24, 2010. This was the first time the FTC had taken action against a social network for security lapses. The settlement requires Twitter to take a number of steps to secure users’ private information, including maintenance of a “comprehensive information security program” to be independently audited biannually.[308]
After a number of high-profile hacks of official accounts, including those of the Associated Press and The Guardian,[309] in April 2013, Twitter announced a two-factor login verification as an added measure against hacking.[310]
On July 15, 2020, a major hack of Twitter affected 130 high-profile accounts, both verified and unverified ones such as Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Elon Musk; the hack allowed bitcoin scammers to send tweets via the compromised accounts that asked the followers to send bitcoin to a given public address, with the promise to double their money.[311] Within a few hours, Twitter disabled tweeting and reset passwords from all verified accounts.[311] Analysis of the event revealed that the scammers had used social engineering to obtain credentials from Twitter employees to access an administration tool used by Twitter to view and change these accounts’ personal details as to gain access as part of a “smash and grab” attempt to make money quickly, with an estimated US$120,000 in bitcoin deposited in various accounts before Twitter intervened.[312] Several law enforcement entities including the FBI launched investigations into the attack.[313]
On August 5, 2022, Twitter disclosed that a bug introduced in a June 2021 update to the service allowed threat actors to link email addresses and phone numbers to twitter user’s accounts.[314][315] The bug was reported through Twitter’s bug bounty program in January 2022 and subsequently fixed. While Twitter originally believed no one had taken advantage of the vulnerability, it was later revealed that a user on the online hacking forum Breached Forums had used the vulnerability to compile a list of over 5.4 million user profiles, which they offered to sell for $30,000.[316][317] The information compiled by the hacker includes user’s screen names, location and email addresses which could be utilised in phishing attacks or used to deanonymize accounts running under pseudonyms.


During an outage, Twitter users were at one time shown the “fail whale” error message image created by Yiying Lu,[318] illustrating eight orange birds using a net to hoist a whale from the ocean captioned “Too many tweets! Please wait a moment and try again.”[319] Web designer and Twitter user Jen Simmons was the first to coin the term “fail whale” in a September 2007 tweet.[320][321] In a November 2013 Wired interview Chris Fry, VP of Engineering at that time, noted that the company had taken the “fail whale” out of production as the platform was now more stable.[322]
Twitter had approximately ninety-eight percent uptime in 2007 (or about six full days of downtime).[323] The downtime was particularly noticeable during events popular with the technology industry such as the 2008 Macworld Conference & Expo keynote address.[324][325]

User accounts
Verified accounts

The official Twitter profile of Twitter, Inc. The blue checkmark to the right of the profile name indicates that it is a verified account.
In June 2009, after being criticized by Kanye West and sued by Tony La Russa over unauthorized accounts run by impersonators, the company launched their “Verified Accounts” program.[326][327] Twitter stated that an account with a “blue tick” verification badge indicates “we’ve been in contact with the person or entity the account is representing and verified that it is approved”.[328] In July 2016, Twitter announced a public application process to grant verified status to an account “if it is determined to be of public interest” and that verification “does not imply an endorsement”.[329][330][331] Verified status allows access to some features unavailable to other users, such as only seeing mentions from other verified accounts.[332]
In November 2020, Twitter announced a relaunch of its verification system in 2021. According to the new policy, Twitter verifies six different types of accounts; for three of them (companies, brands, and influential individuals like activists), the existence of a Wikipedia page will be one criterion for showing that the account has “Off Twitter Notability”.[333] Twitter states that it will re-open public verification applications at some point in “early 2021”.[334]
In October 2022, after the takeover of Twitter by Elon Musk, it was reported that verification would instead be included in the paid Twitter Blue service, and that existing verified accounts would lose their status if they do not subscribe.[335] On November 1, Musk confirmed that verification would be included in Blue in the future, dismissing the existing verification system as a “lords & peasants system”.[210][211][212] Following concerns over the possibility of impersonation, Twitter subsequently reimplemented a second “Official” marker, consisting of a grey tick and “Official” text displayed under the username, for high-profile accounts of “government and commercial entities”.[336][337]

Tweets are public, but users can also send private “direct messages”.[338] Information about who has chosen to follow an account and who a user has chosen to follow is also public, though accounts can be changed to “protected” which limits this information (and all tweets) to approved followers.[339] Twitter collects personally identifiable information about its users and shares it with third parties as specified in its privacy policy. The service also reserves the right to sell this information as an asset if the company changes hands.[340] While Twitter displays no advertising, advertisers can target users based on their history of tweets and may quote tweets in ads[341] directed specifically to the user.
Twitter launched the beta version of their “Verified Accounts” service on June 11, 2009, allowing people with public profiles to announce their account name. The home pages of these accounts display a badge indicating their status.[342]
On December 14, 2010, the United States Department of Justice issued a subpoena directing Twitter to provide information for accounts registered to or associated with WikiLeaks.[343] Twitter decided to notify its users and said in a statement, “… it’s our policy to notify users about law enforcement and governmental requests for their information, unless we are prevented by law from doing so.”[338]
In May 2011, a claimant known as “CTB” in the case of CTB v Twitter Inc. took action against Twitter at the High Court of Justice of England and Wales,[344] requesting that the company release details of account holders. This followed gossip posted on Twitter about professional footballer Ryan Giggs’s private life. This led to the 2011 British privacy injunctions controversy and the “super-injunction”.[345] Tony Wang, the head of Twitter in Europe, said that people who do “bad things” on the site would need to defend themselves under the laws of their own jurisdiction in the event of controversy and that the site would hand over information about users to the authorities when it was legally required to do so.[346] He also suggested that Twitter would accede to a UK court order to divulge names of users responsible for “illegal activity” on the site.[347]
Twitter acquired Dasient, a startup that offers malware protection for businesses, in January 2012. Twitter announced plans to use Dasient to help remove hateful advertisers on the website.[348] Twitter also offered a feature which would allow tweets to be removed selectively by country, before deleted tweets used to be removed in all countries.[349][350] The first use of the policy was to block the account of German neo-Nazi group Besseres Hannover on October 18, 2012.[351] The policy was used again the following day to remove anti-Semitic French tweets with the hashtag #unbonjuif (“a good Jew”).[352]
Followed the sharing of images showing the killing of American journalist James Foley in 2014, Twitter said that in certain cases it would delete pictures of people who had died after requests from family members and “authorized individuals”.[353][354]
In 2015, following updated terms of service and privacy policy, Twitter users outside the United States were legally served by the Ireland-based Twitter International Company instead of Twitter, Inc. The change made these users subject to Irish and European Union data protection laws[355]
On April 8, 2020, Twitter announced that users outside of the European Economic Area or United Kingdom (thus subject to GDPR) will no longer be allowed to opt out of sharing “mobile app advertising measurements” to Twitter third-party partners.[356]
On October 9, 2020, Twitter took additional steps to counter misleading campaigns ahead of the 2020 US Election. Twitter’s new temporary update encouraged users to “add their own commentary” before retweeting a tweet, by making ‘quoting tweet’ a mandatory feature instead of optional. The social network giant aimed at generating context and encouraging the circulation of more thoughtful content.[357] After limited results, the company ended this experiment in December 2020.[358]
On May 25, 2022, Twitter was fined $150 million by the Federal Trade Commission alongside the United States Department of Justice for collecting users’ phone numbers and email addresses for security and then using it for targeted advertising. Twitter was also required to notify its users and is banned from profiting off of ‘deceptively collected data’.[359]

In August 2013, Twitter announced plans to introduce a “report abuse” button for all versions of the site following uproar, including a petition with 100,000 signatures, over Tweets that included rape and death threats to historian Mary Beard, feminist campaigner Caroline Criado-Perez and the member of parliament Stella Creasy.[360][361][362] Twitter announced new reporting and blocking policies in December 2014,[363][364][365][366] including a blocking mechanism devised by Randi Harper, a target of GamerGate.[367][368][369] In February 2015, CEO Dick Costolo said he was ‘frankly ashamed’ at how poorly Twitter handled trolling and abuse, and admitted Twitter had lost users as a result.[370]
As per a research study conducted by IT for Change on abuse and misogynistic trolling on Twitter directed at Indian women in public-political life, women perceived to be ideologically left-leaning, dissenters, Muslim women, political dissenters, and political commentators and women from opposition parties received a disproportionate amount of abusive and hateful messages on Twitter.
In 2016, Twitter announced the creation of the Twitter Trust & Safety Council to help “ensure that people feel safe expressing themselves on Twitter.” The council’s inaugural members included 50 organizations and individuals.[371] The announcement of Twitter’s “Trust & Safety Council” was met with objection from parts of its userbase.[372][373] Critics accused the member organizations of being heavily skewed towards “the restriction of hate speech” and a Reason article expressed concern that “there’s not a single uncompromising anti-censorship figure or group on the list”.[374][375]
Twitter banned 7,000 accounts and limited 150,000 more that had ties to QAnon on July 21, 2020. The bans and limits came after QAnon-related accounts began harassing other users through practices of swarming or brigading, coordinated attacks on these individuals through multiple accounts in the weeks prior. Those accounts limited by Twitter will not appear in searches nor be promoted in other Twitter functions. Twitter said they will continue to ban or limit accounts as necessary, with their support account stating “We will permanently suspend accounts Tweeting about these topics that we know are engaged in violations of our multi-account policy, coordinating abuse around individual victims, or are attempting to evade a previous suspension”.[376]
In September 2021, Twitter began beta testing a feature called Safety Mode.[377] The functionality aims to limit unwelcome interactions through automated detection of negative engagements. If a user has Safety Mode enabled, authors of tweets that are identified by Twitter’s technology as being harmful or exercising uninvited behavior will be temporarily unable to follow the account, send direct messages, or see tweets from the user with the enabled functionality during the temporary block period.[378] Jarrod Doherty, senior product manager at Twitter, stated that the technology in place within Safety Mode assesses existing relationships to prevent blocking accounts that the user frequently interacts with.[377]

Suspect and contested accounts

In January 2016, Twitter was sued by the widow of a U.S. man killed in the 2015 Amman shooting attack, claiming that allowing the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) to continually use the platform, including direct messages in particular,[379] constituted the provision of material support to a terrorist organization, which is illegal under U.S. federal law. Twitter disputed the claim, stating that “violent threats and the promotion of terrorism deserve no place on Twitter and, like other social networks, our rules make that clear.”[380][381] The lawsuit was dismissed by the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, upholding the Section 230 safe harbor, which dictates that the operators of an interactive computer service are not liable for the content published by its users.[381][382] The lawsuit was revised in August 2016, providing comparisons to other telecommunications devices.[379]
Twitter suspended multiple parody accounts that satirized Russian politics in May 2016, sparking protests and raising questions about where the company stands on freedom of speech.[383] Following public outcry, Twitter restored the accounts the next day without explaining why the accounts had been suspended.[384] The same day, Twitter, along with Facebook, Google, and Microsoft, jointly agreed to a European Union code of conduct obligating them to review “[the] majority of valid notifications for removal of illegal hate speech” posted on their services within 24 hours.[385] In August 2016, Twitter stated that it had banned 235,000 accounts over the past six months, bringing the overall number of suspended accounts to 360,000 accounts in the past year, for violating policies banning use of the platform to promote extremism.[386]
On May 10, 2019, Twitter announced that they suspended 166,513 accounts for promoting terrorism in the July–December 2018 period, stating there was a steady decrease in terrorist groups trying to use the platform owing to its “zero-tolerance policy enforcement”. According to Vijaya Gadde, Legal, Policy and Trust and Safety Lead at Twitter, there was a reduction of 19% terror related tweets from the previous reporting period (January–June 2018).[387][388][389][390][391]
As of July 30, 2020, Twitter will block URLs in tweets that point to external websites that contain malicious content (such as malware and phishing content) as well or hate speech, speech encouraging violence, terrorism, child sexual exploitation, breaches of privacy, and other similar content that is already banned as part of the content of tweets on the site. Users that frequently point to such sites may have their accounts suspended. Twitter said this was to bring their policy in line to prevent users from bypassing their tweet content restrictions by simply linking to the banned content.[392]
Following the onset of protests by Donald Trump’s supporters across the US in January 2021, Twitter suspended more than 70,000 accounts, stating that they shared “harmful QAnon-associated content” at a large scale, and were “dedicated to the propagation of this conspiracy theory across the service”. The rioters that broke into US Capitol Hill included a large amount of QAnon followers.[393]

Malicious and fake accounts
Between January and late July 2017, Twitter had identified and shut down over 7,000 fake accounts created by Iranian influence operations.[394]
In May 2018, in response to scrutiny over the misuse of Twitter by those seeking to maliciously influence elections, Twitter announced that it would partner with the nonprofit organization Ballotpedia to add special labels verifying the authenticity of political candidates running for election in the U.S.[395][396]
In December 2019, Twitter removed 5,929 accounts for violating their manipulation policies. The company investigated and attributed these accounts to a single state-run information operation, which originated in Saudi Arabia. The accounts were reported to be a part of a larger group of 88,000 accounts engaged in spammy behavior. However, Twitter did not disclose all of them as some could possibly be legitimate accounts taken over through hacking.[397]
In March 2021, Twitter suspended around 3,500 fake accounts that were running a campaign to influence the American audience, after the US intelligence officials concluded that the assassination of The Washington Post journalist, Jamal Khashoggi was “approved” by the Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman. These Saudi accounts were working in two languages, English and Arabic, to influence public opinion around the issue. Many accounts commented directly on the tweets of US-based media houses, including The Post, CNN, CBS News and The Los Angeles Times. Twitter was unable to identify the source of the influence campaign.[398]
As of 2022[update], the top three countries spreading state-linked Twitter misinformation are Russia, Iran and Saudi Arabia.[399]

Twitter bots

A Twitter bot is a computer program that can automatically tweet, retweet, and follow other accounts. Twitter’s open application programming interface and the availability of cloud servers make it possible for Twitter bots to exist within the social networking site.[400] Benign Twitter bots may generate creative content and relevant product updates whereas malicious bots can make unpopular people seem popular, push irrelevant products on users and spread misinformation, spam or slander.[401] Bots amass significant influence and have been noted to sway elections, influence the stock market, public appeal, and attack governments.[402] As of 2013[update], Twitter said there were 20 million fake accounts on Twitter, representing less than 5% of active users.[403] A 2020 estimate put the figure at 15% of all accounts or around 48 million accounts.[19]



Twitter has been used for a variety of purposes in many industries and scenarios. For example, it has been used to organize protests, including the protests over the 2009 Moldovan election, the 2009 student protests in Austria, the 2009 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2009 Iranian green revolution, the 2010 Toronto G20 protests, the 2010 Bolivarian Revolution, the 2010 Stuttgart21 protests in Germany, the 2011 Egyptian Revolution, 2011 England riots, the 2011 United States Occupy movement, the 2011 anti-austerity movement in Spain, the 2011 Aganaktismenoi movements in Greece, the 2011 demonstration in Rome, the 2011 Wisconsin labor protests, the 2012 Gaza–Israel conflict, the 2013 protests in Brazil, and the 2013 Gezi Park protests in Turkey.[405]
The service is also used as a form of civil disobedience: In 2010, users expressed outrage over the Twitter joke trial by copying a controversial joke about bombing an airport and attaching the hashtag #IAmSpartacus, a reference to the film Spartacus (1960) and a sign of solidarity and support to a man controversially prosecuted after posting a tweet joking about bombing an airport if they canceled his flight. #IAmSpartacus became the number one trending topic on Twitter worldwide.[406] Another case of civil disobedience happened in the 2011 British privacy injunction debate, where several celebrities who had taken out anonymized injunctions were identified by thousands of users in protest to traditional journalism being censored.[407]
During the Arab Spring in early 2011, the number of hashtags mentioning the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt increased.[408] A study by the Dubai School of Government found that only 0.26% of the Egyptian population, 0.1% of the Tunisian population and 0.04% of the Syrian population are active on Twitter.[409]
Posts on the service often contain far-right content, such as hate speech and conspiracy theories such as QAnon.[410] Journalists[which?] have criticized Twitter for hate speech being easy to find on the platform.[411]

According to documents leaked by Edward Snowden and published in July 2014, the United Kingdom’s GCHQ has a tool named BIRDSONG for “automated posting of Twitter updates”, and a tool named BIRDSTRIKE for “Twitter monitoring and profile collection”.[412][413]
During the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, Twitter suspended a core group of 1,000 “fake” accounts and an associated network of 200,000 accounts for operating a disinformation campaign that was linked to the Chinese government. In their announcement, Twitter released two data sets detailing the core group’s account activity.[414][415][416] Geng Shuang, the spokesperson of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, did not comment on the suspensions but suggested that the activity could be attributed to overseas Chinese citizens.[417][418]
On June 12, 2020, Twitter suspended over 7,000 accounts from Turkey because those accounts were fake profiles, designed to support the Turkish president and were managed by a central authority. Turkey’s communication director said that the decision was illogical, biased and politically motivated.[419]
In May 2021, Twitter labeled one of the tweets by Sambit Patra, a spokesman of the local ruling party BJP in India, as “manipulated media”, leading to Twitter’s offices in Delhi and Gurgaon being raided by the local police.[420] Twitter issued a statement, calling the police visit “a form of intimidation”.[421] Later, the Indian government released a statement in July 2021 claiming Twitter has lost its liability protection concerning user-generated content. This was brought on by Twitter’s failure to comply with the new IT rules introduced in 2021 with a filing stating that the company failed to appoint executives to govern user content on the platform.[422] Twitter stated to India’s government in August 2021 that they have appointed permanent executives and staff to provide for compliance to these new IT rules.[423]
In September 2022, a Dutch town sued Twitter for spreading a conspiracy theory that the town was once home to a ring of Satan-worshipping paedophiles. False reports that Bodegraven-Reeuwijk was the place of the abuse and murder of children in the 1980s were first circulated by three men in 2020.[424]

Twitter refers to pornography as “adult content” and permits it on the platform provided that it is marked “sensitive”, and makes it visible to all after a click through.[425] The “super-follow” feature is said to enable competition with the subscription site OnlyFans, used mainly by sex workers.[426] Content filtering services for families and schools have noted that the company makes “it really easy to find” porn, and advise blocking the entire domain.[427]
Twitter is one of the only mainstream sites that allows users to upload sexually explicit photos and videos, in the four years after Tumblr banned porn altogether, in response to the Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act. Many performers use twitter’s service to market and grow their porn businesses, attracting users to paywalled services like OnlyFans, by distributing photos and short video clips as advertisements.
In April 2022, Twitter convened a “Red Team” for the project of ACM, “Adult Content Monetization”, as it is known internally. Eventually the project was abandoned, because of the difficulty of implementing Real ID.[428]

Child sexual exploitation
A February 2021 report from the company’s Health team begins, “While the amount of CSE (child sexual exploitation) online has grown exponentially, Twitter’s investment in technologies to detect and manage the growth has not.”
Until February 2022, the only way for users to flag illegal content was to flag it as “sensitive media” — a broad category that left much of the worst material not prioritized for moderation. In a February report, employees wrote that Twitter along with other Tech Companies have “accelerated the pace of CSE content creation and distribution to a breaking point where manual detection, review, and investigations no longer scale” by allowing pornography and failing to invest in systems that could effectively monitor it. The working group made several recommendations, but they were not taken up and the group was disbanded.
As part of its efforts to monetize porn, Twitter held an internal investigation that reported in April 2022, “Twitter cannot accurately detect child sexual exploitation and non-consensual nudity at scale.”[428]
John Doe et al vs. Twitter, a civil lawsuit filed in the 9th Circuit Court, alleges that Twitter benefited from sex trafficking and refused to remove the illegal tweets when first informed of them.[429][430] In an amicus brief filed in the case, the NCMEC said, “The children informed the company that they were minors, that they had been ‘baited, harassed, and threatened’ into making the videos, that they were victims of ‘sex abuse’ under investigation by law enforcement” but Twitter failed to remove the videos, “allowing them to be viewed by hundreds of thousands of the platform’s users.”[428]
Some major brands including Dyson, Mazda, Forbes, and PBS Kids suspended their marketing campaigns and pulled their ads from the platform, after an investigation into child porn on twitter showed that Twitter failed to suspend 70% of the accounts that shared or solicited the prohibited content. A brand president at Cole Haan said, “We’re horrified … either Twitter is going to fix this, or we’ll fix it by any means we can, which includes not buying Twitter ads.”[431]

On communication
In May 2008, The Wall Street Journal wrote that social networking services such as Twitter “elicit mixed feelings in the technology-savvy people who have been their early adopters. Fans say they are a good way to keep in touch with busy friends. But some users are starting to feel too connected, as they grapple with check-in messages at odd hours, higher cellphone bills and the need to tell acquaintances to stop announcing what they’re having for dinner.”[432] The following year, John C. Dvorak described Twitter as “the new CB radio”.[433]

Emergency use
A practical use for Twitter’s real-time functionality is as an effective de facto emergency communication system for breaking news. It was neither intended nor designed for high-performance communication, but the idea that it could be used for emergency communication was not lost on the creators, who knew that the service could have wide-reaching effects early on when the company used it to communicate during earthquakes.[434]
Another practical use that is being studied is Twitter’s ability to track epidemics and how they spread.[435] Additionally Twitter serves as a real-time sensor for natural disasters such as bush fires and earthquakes.[436][437]

Twitter has been adopted as a communication and learning tool in educational and research[438] settings mostly in colleges and universities.[439][440] It has been used as a backchannel to promote student interactions, especially in large-lecture courses.[441] Research has found that using Twitter in college courses helps students communicate with each other and faculty, promotes informal learning, allows shy students a forum for increased participation, increases student engagement, and improves overall course grades.[442][443][444]
Twitter has been an increasingly growing in the field of education, as an effective tool that can be used to encourage learning and idea, or knowledge sharing, in and outside the classroom.[445] By using or creating hashtags, students and educators are able to communicate under specific categories of their choice, to enhance and promote education. A broad example of a hashtag used in education is “edchat”, to communicate with other teachers, and people using that hashtag. Once teachers find someone they want to talk to, they can either direct message the person, or narrow down the hashtag to make the topic of the conversation more specific using hashtags for scichat (science), engchat (English), sschat (social studies).[445]
In a 2011 study, researchers found that young peoples use of Twitter helped to improve relationships with teachers, encourage interactive learning, and ultimately lead to high grades.[445] In the same study it was found that out of a group of 158 educators, 92% agreed that the reason they use Twitter is because of how user friendly it is,[445] another 86% agreed that they started and continue using Twitter because of how easy it is to learn, and finally,[445] 93% said they use Twitter because it is free. People found that sifting through large amounts of data is challenging, however, with the simple nature of Twitter large amount of information became easily accessible.[446] Much of this simplicity comes from the use of the hashtag, and the intuitive nature of how Twitter as a microblogging site operates.[446] These features help to promote education outside the classroom in a global setting where students and educators are easily able to create, connect, and share knowledge. This ultimately promotes growth and learning among students and educators, not just in the classroom, but virtually and around the world.

Public figures
Jonathan Zittrain, professor of Internet law at Harvard Law School, said that “the qualities that make Twitter seem inane and half-baked are what makes it so powerful.”[447] In that same vein, and with Sigmund Freud in mind, political communications expert Matthew Auer observed that well-crafted tweets by public figures often deliberately mix trivial and serious information so as to appeal to all three parts of the reader’s personality: the id, ego, and superego.[448]
The poets Mira Gonzalez and Tao Lin published a book titled Selected Tweets featuring selections of their tweets over some eight years. The book was designed to look like a small bible.[449] The novelist Rick Moody wrote a short story for Electric Literature called “Some Contemporary Characters,” composed entirely of tweets.[450]
During a February 2009 discussion on National Public Radio’s Weekend Edition, the journalist Daniel Schorr stated that Twitter accounts of events lacked rigorous fact-checking and other editorial improvements. In response, Andy Carvin gave Schorr two examples of breaking news stories that played out on Twitter and said users wanted first-hand accounts and sometimes debunked stories.[451] Time magazine acknowledged its growing level of influence in its 2010 Time 100; to determine the influence of people, it used a formula based on famous social networking sites, Twitter and Facebook. The list ranges from Barack Obama and Oprah Winfrey to Lady Gaga and Ashton Kutcher.[452][453]
During the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony, in which he appeared at the London Olympic Stadium in person,[454] Sir Tim Berners-Lee, the founder of the World Wide Web, tweeted “This is for everyone”,[455] which was instantly spelled out in LCD lights attached to the chairs of the 80,000 people in the audience.[454]
Many commentators have suggested that Twitter radically changed the format of reporting due to instant, short, and frequent communication.[456][457] According to The Atlantic writers Benjamin M. Reilly and Robinson Meyer, Twitter has an outsized impact on the public discourse and media. “Something happens on Twitter; celebrities, politicians and journalists talk about it, and it’s circulated to a wider audience by Twitter’s algorithms; journalists write about the dustup.” This can lead to an argument on a Twitter feed looking like a “debate roiling the country… regular people are left with a confused, agitated view of our current political discourse”.[458] In a 2018 article in the Columbia Journalism Review, Matthew Ingram argued much the same about Twitter’s “oversized role” and that it promotes immediacy over newsworthiness.[459] In some cases, inauthentic and provocative tweets were taken up as common opinion in mainstream articles. Writers in several outlets unintentionally cited the opinions of Russian Internet Research Agency-affiliated accounts.[459][460]

World leaders
Donald Trump’s Twitter post
World leaders and their diplomats have taken note of Twitter’s rapid expansion and have been increasingly utilizing Twitter diplomacy, the use of Twitter to engage with foreign publics and their own citizens. US Ambassador to Russia, Michael A. McFaul has been attributed as a pioneer of international Twitter diplomacy. He used Twitter after becoming ambassador in 2011, posting in English and Russian.[461] On October 24, 2014, Queen Elizabeth II sent her first tweet to mark the opening of the London Science Museum’s Information Age exhibition.[462] A 2013 study by website Twiplomacy found that 153 of the 193 countries represented at the United Nations had established government Twitter accounts.[463] The same study also found that those accounts amounted to 505 Twitter handles used by world leaders and their foreign ministers, with their tweets able to reach a combined audience of over 106 million followers.[463]
According to an analysis of accounts, the heads of state of 125 countries and 139 other leading politicians have Twitter accounts that have between them sent more than 350,000 tweets and have almost 52 million followers. However, only 30 of these do their own tweeting, more than 80 do not subscribe to other politicians and many do not follow any accounts.[464]

As of October 2015, more than twenty Roman Catholic cardinals managed active Twitter accounts,[465] nine of whom were cardinal electors for the 2013 Papal conclave.[466] Pope Benedict XVI’s Twitter account was set up in 2012. As of April 2022, his successor, Pope Francis, has 18.9 million followers of his Twitter account (@Pontifex).[467][needs update]

Censorship and moderation

Twitter is banned completely in Russia,[468] Iran, China and North Korea,[469] and has been intermittently blocked in numerous countries including Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Turkey, Venezuela and Turkmenistan on different bases.[470][471][472][473][474][475] In 2016, Twitter cooperated with the Israeli government to remove certain content originating outside Israel from tweets seen in Israel.[476] In the 11th biannual transparency report published on September 19, 2017, Twitter said that Turkey was the first among countries where about 90 percent of removal requests came from, followed by Russia, France and Germany.[477] Twitter stated that between July 1 and December 31, 2018, “We received legal demands relating to 27,283 accounts from 47 different countries, including Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and Slovenia for the first time.”[478] As part of evidence to a US Senate Enquiry, the company admitted that their systems “detected and hid” several hundred thousand tweets relating to the 2016 Democratic National Committee email leak.[479] During the curfew in Jammu and Kashmir after revocation of its autonomous status on August 5, 2019, the Indian government approached Twitter to block accounts accused of spreading anti-India content;[480] by October 25, nearly one million tweets had been removed as a result.[481]
In March 2022, shortly after Russia’s censorship of Twitter, a Tor Onion service link was created by the platform to allow people to access the website, even in countries with heavy Internet censorship.[482][483]

Moderation of tweets
Twitter removed more than 88,000 propaganda accounts linked to Saudi Arabia.[484] Twitter removed tweets from accounts associated with the Russian Internet Research Agency that had tried to influence public opinion during and after the 2016 US election.[459][460] In June 2020, Twitter also removed 175,000 propaganda accounts that were spreading biased political narratives for the Chinese Communist Party, the United Russia Party, or Turkey’s President Erdogan, identified based on centralized behavior.[485][486] Twitter also removed accounts linked to the governments of Armenia, Egypt, Cuba, Serbia, Honduras, Indonesia and Iran.[487][488][489] Twitter suspended Pakistani accounts tied to government officials for posting tweets about the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan.[490] In February 2021, Twitter removed accounts in India that criticized Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government for its conduct during Indian farmers’ protests in 2020–2021.[491]
At the start of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic, numerous tweets reported false medical information related to the pandemic. Twitter announced a new policy in which they would label tweets containing misinformation going forward.[91] In April 2020, Twitter removed accounts which defended President Rodrigo Duterte’s response to the spread of COVID-19 in the Philippines.[492]
In November 2020, then Chief Technology Officer and future CEO of Twitter Parag Agrawal, when asked by MIT Technology Review about balancing the protection of free speech as a core value and the endeavour to combat misinformation, said: “Our role is not to be bound by the First Amendment, but our role is to serve a healthy public conversation … focus less on thinking about free speech, but thinking about how the times have changed.”[493]
In November 2022, however, Twitter stopped enforcing its policy on labeling tweets with misleading information about coronavirus. This came in the light of Elon Musk’s acquisition of Twitter earlier that year.[494]

Logo of Birdwatch, a Twitter program
As part of its means to moderate misinformation, Twitter launched its crowd-sourced Birdwatch program in January 2021. Trusted users in the program will have the ability to monitor tweets and replies that may include misinformation and countermessages providing fact-checking as to have Twitter tag these messages appropriately from the Birdwatch community.[495]
In November 2021, Twitter announced an update to the Birdwatch moderation tool, meant to limit the visibility of contributors’ identities by creating aliases for their accounts.[496] In March 2022, Twitter expanded access to notes made by the Birdwatch moderators, giving a randomized set of US users the ability to view the notes attached to tweets and rate them.[497][498]
In November 2022, at the request of new owner Elon Musk, Birdwatch was rebranded to Community Notes.[499]

Court cases and lawsuits
Twitter Inc. v. Taamneh, alongside Gonzalez v. Google, is currently pending before the United States Supreme Court during its 2022–2023 term. Both cases deal with Internet content providers and whether they are liable for terrorism-related information posted by their users. In the case of Twitter v. Taamnah, the case asks if Twitter and other social media services are liable for user-generated terrorism content under the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 and are beyond their Section 230 protections.
In 2016, Twitter shareholder Doris Shenwick filed a lawsuit against Twitter, Inc., claiming executives misled investors over the company’s growth prospects.[500] In 2021, Twitter agreed to pay $809.5 million to settle.[500]
In May 2022, Twitter agreed to pay $150 million to settle a lawsuit started by the Department of Justice and the Federal Trade Commission. The lawsuit concerned Twitter’s use of email addresses and phone numbers of Twitter users to target advertisements at them. The company also agreed to third-party audits of its data privacy program.[501]
On November 3, 2022, on the eve of expected lay-offs, a group of Twitter employees based San Francisco and Cambridge filed a lawsuit in the U.S. District Court in San Francisco. Naming five current or former workers as plaintiffs, the suit accused the company of violating federal and state laws that govern notice of employment termination.[502] The federal law in question is the Work Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act, and the state law in question is California’s state WARN Act.[503]

Twitter is increasingly used for TV to be more interactive.[504] This effect is sometimes referred to as the second screen,[505] “virtual watercooler” or social television—the practice has been called “chatterboxing”.[506] Twitter has been successfully used to encourage people to watch live TV events, such as the Oscars, the Super Bowl[507] and the MTV Video Music Awards; however this strategy has proven less effective with regularly scheduled TV shows.[508] Such direct cross-promotions have been banned from French television due to regulations against secret advertising.[509]
In December 2012, Twitter and Nielsen entered a multi-year agreement to produce social TV ratings, which are expected to be commercially available for the fall 2013 season as the Nielsen Twitter TV Rating.[510] Advertising Age said Twitter had become the new TV Guide.[511] Then in February 2013, Twitter acquired Bluefin Labs for an estimated US$50 million to $100 million. Founded in 2008 at the MIT Media Lab, Bluefin is a data miner whose analysis tells which brands (e.g., TV shows and companies) are chatted about the most in social media.[510][512] MIT Technology Review said that Bluefin gives Twitter part of the US$72 billion television advertising market.[513]
In May 2013, it launched Twitter Amplify—an advertising product for media and consumer brands.[514] With Amplify, Twitter runs video highlights from major live broadcasts, with advertisers’ names and messages playing before the clip.[515] In October 2013, Comcast announced that it had partnered with Twitter to implement its “See It” feature within the service, allowing posts promoting programs on selected NBCUniversal channels to contain direct links to TV Everywhere streaming to the program. On launch, the concept was limited to NBCUniversal channels and Xfinity cable television subscribers.[516]
In an attempt to compete with Twitter’s leadership in TV, Facebook introduced a number of features in 2013 to drive conversation about TV including hashtags, verified profiles and embeddable posts. It also opened up new data visualization APIs for TV news and other media outlets, enabling them to search for a word and see a firehose of public posts that mention it as well as show how many people mentioned a word in both public and private posts during a set time frame, with a demographic breakdown of the age, gender, and location of these people.[517] In January 2014, Facebook announced a partnership with UK-based social TV analytics company SecondSync which saw the social network make its social TV available outside the company for the first time. Facebook struck the partnership to help marketers understand how people are using the social network to talk about topics such as TV.[518] However, Twitter responded by acquiring SecondSync and Parisian social TV firm Mesagraph three months later. These acquisitions, as well as a partnership with research company Kantar (which it had been working with to develop a suite of analytics tools for the British TV industry since August 2013) strengthened Twitter’s dominance of the “second screen” – TV viewers using tablets and smartphones to share their TV experience on social media. With the additional analytic tools, Twitter was able to improve the firm’s offering to advertisers, allowing them to, for instance, only promote a tweet onto the timelines of users who were watching a certain programme.[519]
By February 2014, all four major U.S. TV networks had signed up to the Amplify program, bringing a variety of premium TV content onto the social platform in the form of in-tweet real-time video clips.[520] In March 2014, ITV became the first major broadcaster in the UK to sign up to Twitter Amplify[521] and Twitter introduced one-tap video playback across its mobile apps to further enhance the consumer experience.[522]
In June 2014, Twitter acquired its Amplify partner in the U.S., SnappyTV.[523] In Europe, Twitter’s Amplify partner is London-based Grabyo, which has also struck numerous deals with broadcasters and rights holders[524] to share video content across Facebook and Twitter.[525] In July 2017, Twitter announced that it would wind down SnappyTV as a separate company, and integrate its features into the Media Studio suite on Twitter.[526]

User accounts with large follower base

As of 19 November 2022[update], the ten Twitter accounts with the most followers were:

Record tweets

A selfie orchestrated by 86th Academy Awards host Ellen DeGeneres during the March 2, 2014, broadcast[527] was at the time the most retweeted image ever.[528] DeGeneres said she wanted to pay homage to Meryl Streep’s record 17 Oscar nominations by setting a new record with her, and invited other Oscar celebrities to join them. The resulting photo of twelve celebrities broke the previous retweet record within forty minutes, and was retweeted over 1.8 million times in the first hour.[529][530][531] By the end of the ceremony it had been retweeted over 2 million times.[529] On May 9, 2017, Ellen’s record was broken by Carter Wilkerson (@carterjwm) by collecting nearly 3.5 million retweets in a little over a month.[532] This record was broken when Yusaku Maezawa announced a giveaway on Twitter in January 2019, accumulating 4.4 million retweets. A similar tweet he made in December 2019 was retweeted 3.8 million times.[533]
The most tweeted moment in the history of Twitter occurred on August 2, 2013; during a Japanese television airing of the Studio Ghibli film Castle in the Sky, fans simultaneously tweeted the word balse (バルス)—the incantation for a destruction spell used during its climax, after it was uttered in the film. There was a global peak of 143,199 tweets in one second, beating the previous record of 33,388.[534][535]
The most discussed event in Twitter history occurred on October 24, 2015; the hashtag (“#ALDubEBTamangPanahon”) for Tamang Panahon, a live special episode of the Filipino variety show Eat Bulaga! at the Philippine Arena, centering on its popular on-air couple AlDub, attracted 41 million tweets.[536][537] The most-discussed sporting event in Twitter history was the 2014 FIFA World Cup semi-final between Brazil and Germany on July 8, 2014.[538]
According to Guinness World Records, the fastest pace to a million followers was set by actor Robert Downey Jr. in 23 hours and 22 minutes in April 2014.[539] This record was later broken by Caitlyn Jenner, who joined the site on June 1, 2015, and amassed a million followers in just 4 hours and 3 minutes.[540]

See also


^ It is not documented whether the parallax scrolling effect was added with the redesign in April 2014 or subsequently.


^ a b jack [@jack] (March 21, 2006). “just setting up my twttr” (Tweet). Retrieved February 4, 2011 – via Twitter.

^ “US SEC: FY2021 Form 10-K Twitter, Inc”. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Retrieved March 27, 2022.

^ “Twitter – Company”. Retrieved July 30, 2019.

^ a b “Twitter Search Is Now 3x Faster”. April 6, 2011.

^ Humble, Charles (July 4, 2011). “Twitter Shifting More Code to JVM, Citing Performance and Encapsulation As Primary Drivers”. InfoQ. Retrieved January 15, 2013.

^ a b Arrington, Michael (July 15, 2006). “Odeo Releases Twttr”. TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved September 18, 2010.

^ Dang, Sheila (October 26, 2022). “Exclusive: Twitter is losing its most active users, internal documents show”. Reuters.

^ “Twitter turns off its original SMS service in most countries” Retrieved January 14, 2021.

^ “Tweeting Made Easier” Retrieved November 7, 2017.

^ “About Twitter” Archived April 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved April 24, 2014.

^ “Twitter turns six”. Twitter. March 21, 2012.

^ “Twitter Passed 500M Users In June 2012, 140M Of Them In US; Jakarta ‘Biggest Tweeting’ City”. TechCrunch. July 30, 2012.

^ “The Engineering Behind Twitter’s New Search Experience”. Twitter Engineering Blog. Twitter. May 31, 2011. Archived from the original on March 25, 2014. Retrieved June 7, 2014.

^ “Twitter turns six”, March 21, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.

^ D’Monte, Leslie (April 29, 2009). “Swine Flu’s Tweet Tweet Causes Online Flutter”. Business Standard. Retrieved February 4, 2011. Also known as the ‘SMS of the internet’, Twitter is a free social networking service

^ a b “Twitter overcounted active users since 2014, shares surge on profit hopes”. USA Today.

^ Carlson, Nicholas. “10% Of Twitter Users Account For 90% Of Twitter Activity”, Business Insider (June 2, 2009).

^ Wojcik, Stefan and Hughes, Adam.”Sizing Up Twitter Users”, Pew Research Center (April 25, 2019).

^ a b Rodrıguez-Ruiz, Jorge; Mata-Sanchez, Javier Israel; Monroy, Raul; Loyola-Gonzalez, Octavio; Ĺopez-Cuevas, Armando (April 2020). “A one-class classification approach for bot detection on Twitter”. Computers & Security. 91: 101715. doi:10.1016/j.cose.2020.101715. S2CID 212689495. Retrieved June 17, 2022.

^ Isaac, Mike; Hirsch, Lauren (April 25, 2022). “Musk’s deal for Twitter is worth about $44 billion”. The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 26, 2022.

^ Feiner, Lauren (April 25, 2022). “Twitter accepts Elon Musk’s buyout deal”. CNBC. Retrieved April 25, 2022.

^ Kay, Kali Hays, Grace. “Elon Musk is now officially Twitter’s new owner, ending months of costly litigation”. Business Insider. Retrieved October 28, 2022.

^ “Twitter Purchased by Elon Musk: A Timeline of How It Happened”. WSJ. Retrieved November 7, 2022.

^ Knight, Will. “Here’s Proof Hate Speech Is More Viral on Elon Musk’s Twitter”. Wired – via

^ Nix, Naomi; Lerman, Rachel (November 19, 2022). “A diminished Twitter faces a World Cup test for hate speech moderation”. The Washington Post. Retrieved December 6, 2022.

^ “Elon Musk completes Twitter takeover amid hate speech concerns”. The Guardian. October 28, 2022.

^ “Why is Elon Musk’s Twitter takeover increasing hate speech?”. Brookings. November 23, 2022.

^ “Elon Musk Belittles Black Twitter and His Black Employees”. The Root. November 24, 2022.

^ Ruth, Wolfgang (December 9, 2022). “All the Celebs Who Left Twitter”. Vulture.

^ (registration required) Miller, Claire Cain (October 30, 2010). “Why Twitter’s C.E.O. Demoted Himself”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 1, 2010. Retrieved October 31, 2010.

^ “Co-founder of Twitter receives key to St. Louis with 140 character proclamation”. KSDK. September 19, 2009. Archived from the original on December 28, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2009. After high school in St. Louis and some time at the University of Missouri–Rolla, Jack headed east to New York University.

^ Ev [@ev] (April 13, 2011). “It’s true that @Noah never got enough credit for his early role at Twitter. Also, he came up with the name, which was brilliant” (Tweet). Retrieved April 26, 2011 – via Twitter.

^ “Buy a vowel? How Twttr became Twitter”. CNN Money. November 23, 2010. Retrieved June 9, 2015.

^ Sagolla, Dom (January 30, 2009). “How Twitter Was Born”. 140 Characters: A Style Guide for the Short Form. Retrieved February 4, 2011.

^ Sano, David (February 18, 2009). “Twitter Creator Jack Dorsey Illuminates the Site’s Founding Document”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 18, 2009.

^ Carlson, Nicholas (April 13, 2011). “How Twitter Was Founded”. Business Insider. Retrieved September 4, 2013.

^ Malik, Om (October 25, 2006). “Odeo RIP, Hello Obvious Corp”. GigaOM. Retrieved June 20, 2009.

^ Madrigal, Alexis (April 14, 2011). “Twitter’s Fifth Beatle Tells His Side of the Story”. The Atlantic. Retrieved April 26, 2011.

^ Lennon, Andrew. “A Conversation with Twitter Co-Founder Jack Dorsey”. The Daily Anchor. Archived from the original on July 27, 2009. Retrieved February 12, 2009.

^ Lapowsky, Issie (October 4, 2013). “Ev Williams on Twitter’s Early Years”. Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2013.

^ Meyers, Courtney Boyd (July 15, 2011). “5 years ago today Twitter launched to the public”. The Next Web. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ Levy, Steven (April 30, 2007). “Twitter: Is Brevity The Next Big Thing?”. Newsweek. Retrieved February 4, 2011.

^ Terdiman, Daniel (March 10, 2007). “To Twitter or Dodgeball at SXSW?”. CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved February 4, 2011.

^ Stone, Biz (February 4, 2011). “We Won!”. Twitter Blog. Twitter. Retrieved May 7, 2008.

^ Beaumont, Claudine (February 23, 2010). “Twitter Users Send 50 Million Tweets Per Day – Almost 600 Tweets Are Sent Every Second Through the Microblogging Site, According to Its Own Metrics”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ “13th Annual Webby Special Achievement Award Winners”. The Webby Awards. Archived from the original on February 20, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ Paul, Ian (May 5, 2009). “Jimmy Fallon Wins Top Webby: And the Winners Are…” PC World. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ “Top Word of 2009: Twitter”. November 29, 2009. Retrieved July 28, 2014.

^ “Twitter Registers 1,500 Per Cent Growth in Users”. New Statesman. March 4, 2010. Archived from the original on May 3, 2019. Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ Garrett, Sean (June 18, 2010). “Big Goals, Big Game, Big Records”. Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ “Twitter Blog: #numbers”. March 14, 2011. Retrieved January 20, 2012.

^ a b Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). “Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs”. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2009.

^ Miller, Claire Cain (June 18, 2010). “Sports Fans Break Records on Twitter”. Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ Van Grove, Jennifer (June 25, 2010). “Twitter Sets New Record: 3,283 Tweets Per Second”. Mashable. Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ “Women’s World Cup Final breaks Twitter record”. ESPN. July 18, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2011.

^ Shiels, Maggie (June 26, 2009). “Web Slows After Jackson’s Death”. BBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ a b c d Krikorian, Raffi (August 16, 2013). “New Tweets per second record, and how!”. Twitter Blogs. Archived from the original on August 22, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2021.

^ Kanalley, Craig (January 2, 2013). “Tweets-Per-Second Record Set By Japan, Korea On New Year’s Day 2013”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 3, 2013.

^ Press release (January 22, 2010). “Media Advisory M10-012 – NASA Extends the World Wide Web Out into Space”. NASA. Retrieved February 5, 2011.

^ Miller, Claire Cain (April 11, 2010). “Twitter Acquires Atebits, Maker of Tweetie”. Bits (blog of The New York Times). Retrieved February 7, 2011.

^ Rayome, Alison DeNisco. “Facebook was the most-downloaded app of the decade”. CNET. Retrieved December 18, 2019.

^ Praetorius, Dean (May 4, 2011). “Twitter Users Report Has A New Homepage (SCREENSHOTS)”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ Dunn, John E (April 6, 2011). “Twitter Delays Homepage Revamp After Service Glitch”. PCWorld. Archived from the original on May 10, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ Crum, Chris (April 20, 2011). “New Twitter Homepage Launched”. Archived from the original on April 24, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011.

^ “Twitter: Yours to discover”. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.

^ “Twitter 2.0: Everything You Need to Know About the New Changes”. Fox News. April 7, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2012.

^ “Twitter partners with Yandex for real-time search”. Reuters. February 21, 2012. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2017.

^ “Twitter Says It Has 140 Million Users”. Mashable. March 21, 2012.

^ Rodriguez, Salvador (June 6, 2012). “Twitter flips the bird, adopts new logo”. Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ Gilbertson, Scott (June 8, 2012). “Twitter’s New Logo Inspires Parodies, CSS Greatness”. Wired. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ “Twitter Now Has More Than 200 Million Monthly Active Users”. Mashable. December 18, 2012.

^ T. Huang, Gregory (February 5, 2013). “Twitter’s Boston Acquisitions: Crashlytics Tops $100M, Bluefin Labs Close Behind”. Xconomy. Retrieved November 22, 2021.

^ Ulanoff, Lance (April 18, 2013). “Twitter Launches Twitter #music App and Service”. Mashable. Mashable. Retrieved April 28, 2013.

^ “Twitter acquires real-time social data company Trendrr to help it better tap into TV and media”. The Next web. August 28, 2013. Retrieved August 29, 2013.

^ Isidore, Chris (September 10, 2013). “Twitter makes another acquisition”. CNN Money. Retrieved September 10, 2013.

^ Moore, Heidi (September 12, 2013). “Twitter files for IPO in first stage of stock market launch”. The Guardian. Retrieved September 13, 2013.

^ Schultz, E.J. (October 5, 2020). “Q&AA: The CMO Fixer: After working for major marketers, Lisa Mann now places CMOs and other executives. She gives her take on what’s ailing top brands and what companies are looking for in top execs”. Ad Age. 91 (19): 6.

^ “Wayback Machine”.

^ Savov, Vlad (April 8, 2014). “Twitter redesign looks a lot like Facebook”. The Verge.

^ “Twitter-like Header Parallax Effect Using Pure CSS / CSS3”. CSS Script. May 19, 2015.

^ “ gets a refresh”. Retrieved July 30, 2019.

^ Ingram, Matthew (October 25, 2015). “What if the Twitter growth everyone is hoping for never comes?”. Fortune. Retrieved September 23, 2016.

^ Beaver, Laurie; Boland, Margaret (October 28, 2015). “Twitter user growth continues to stall”. Business Insider. Retrieved September 23, 2016.

^ Beck, Martin (October 27, 2015). “Revenue Is Up, But Twitter Is Still Struggling In Slow Growth Mode”. Marketing Land. Retrieved September 23, 2016.

^ Truong, Alice (February 10, 2016). “Twitter now has a problem that’s way worse than slow user growth”. Quartz. Retrieved September 23, 2016.

^ Oremus, Will (May 15, 2018). “Twitter Will Start Hiding Tweets That “Detract From the Conversation””. Slate Magazine.

^ “Like It or Not, You’re Getting Twitter’s Redesigned Website Soon”. PCMAG. Retrieved August 25, 2020.

^ “Twitter will deprecate support for TLS 1.0, TLS 1.1 on July 15”. Hashed Out by The SSL Store™. July 12, 2019.

^ “Q2 2020 Letter to Shareholders, July 23, 2020, @TwitterIR” (PDF). Twitter. Retrieved March 14, 2022.

^ “Full Page Reload”. IEEE Spectrum: Technology, Engineering, and Science News. July 29, 2020. Retrieved August 26, 2020.

^ a b Roth, Yoel; Pickles, Nick (May 11, 2020). “Updating our Approach to Misleading Information”. Twitter. Retrieved May 28, 2020.

^ Lybrand, Holmes; Subramaniam, Tara (May 27, 2020). “Fact-checking Trump’s recent claims that mail-in voting is rife with fraud”. CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2020.

^ Allyn, Bobby (May 28, 2020). “Stung By Twitter, Trump Signs Executive Order To Weaken Social Media Companies”. NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved May 29, 2020.

^ “rump signs executive order targeting social media companies”. CNN. CNN. May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.

^ Conger, Kate; Isaac, Mike (May 28, 2020). “Defying Trump, Twitter Doubles Down on Labeling Tweets”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 28, 2020. Retrieved May 29, 2020.

^ “Twitter ‘permanently suspends’ Trump’s account”. BBC News. January 8, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ “Germany and France Oppose Trump’s Twitter Exile”. January 11, 2021. Retrieved January 11, 2021. The chancellor sees the complete closing down of the account of an elected president as problematic,” Steffen Seibert, her chief spokesman, said at a regular news conference in Berlin. Rights like the freedom of speech “can be interfered with, but by law and within the framework defined by the legislature — not according to a corporate decision.

^ “Nigeria’s Twitter ban: Government orders prosecution of violators”. BBC News. June 6, 2021. Retrieved June 20, 2021.

^ “Nigeria suspends Twitter after the social media platform freezes president’s account”. The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved June 20, 2021.

^ Ohuocha, Chijioke (June 5, 2021). “Nigerian telecoms firms suspend access to Twitter”. Reuters. Retrieved June 20, 2021.

^ Goldsmith, Jill (February 10, 2021). “Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey On Section 230, Transparency, Appeals And Twitter Turning 15”. Deadline. Retrieved March 26, 2021.

^ Matney, Lucas (January 15, 2021). “Twitter’s decentralized future”. TechCrunch. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Rodriguez, Salvador (May 3, 2021). “Twitter launches Spaces live-audio rooms to all users with more than 600 followers”. CNBC. Retrieved August 10, 2021.

^ Lyons, Kim (May 3, 2021). “Twitter will now let anyone with 600 or more followers host its audio Spaces on mobile”. The Verge. Retrieved August 10, 2021.

^ “Twitter launches subscription-based feature “super follows””. Reuters. September 1, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Robertson, Adi (June 22, 2021). “Twitter is opening applications to test Ticketed Spaces and Super Follows”. The Verge. Retrieved June 23, 2021.

^ Bonifac, Igor (August 11, 2021). “Twitter rolls out redesign with proprietary Chirp font”. Engadget. Retrieved August 11, 2021.

^ “Twitter partners with Shopify to bring merchants’ products to Twitter Shopping”. TechCrunch. June 22, 2022. Retrieved June 23, 2022.

^ a b “Timeline of billionaire Elon Musk’s bid to control Twitter”. AP NEWS. October 27, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.

^ “What Elon Musk might do with Twitter after his takeover is complete”. the Guardian. October 28, 2022. Retrieved November 3, 2022.

^ Dang, Sheila; Roumeliotis, Greg (October 28, 2022). “Musk begins his Twitter ownership with firings, declares the ‘bird is freed'”. Reuters. Retrieved November 7, 2022.

^ O’Sullivan, Donie; Duffy, Claire (November 4, 2022). “Elon Musk’s Twitter lays off employees across the company”. CNN. Retrieved November 5, 2022.

^ Korn, Jennifer; O’Sullivan, Donie (November 6, 2022). “Twitter delays $8 ‘blue check’ verification plan until after the midterms”. CNN. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Fung, Brian (November 11, 2022). “A day of chaos brings Twitter closer to the brink | CNN Business”. CNN. Retrieved November 13, 2022.

^ Vincent, James; Hollister, Sean (November 19, 2022). “Elon Musk says he’s letting Donald Trump back on Twitter”. The Verge. Retrieved November 19, 2022.

^ Squires, Bethy (November 28, 2022). “Oh Good, Kanye West Is Back on Twitter”. Vulture. Retrieved December 9, 2022.

^ Mackintosh, Thomas (December 2, 2022). “Elon Musk suspends Kanye West from Twitter for inciting violence”. BBC News. Retrieved December 9, 2022.

^ Grynbaum, Michael (December 4, 2022). “Elon Musk, Matt Taibbi, and a Very Modern Media Maelstrom”. The New York Times. Retrieved December 9, 2022.

^ Folmar, Chloe (December 10, 2022). “American author Michael Shellenberger releases ‘Twitter Files Part 4′”. The Hill. Retrieved December 11, 2022.

^ “Musk says Twitter lawyer fired amid Hunter Biden laptop dispute”. Al Jazeera. December 7, 2022. Retrieved December 7, 2022.

^ Vincent, James (August 23, 2022). “Twitter’s former security chief says company lied about bots and safety”. The Verge.

^ Elon Musk starts banning critical journalists from Twitter. The Verge, 15 December 2022

^ a b Elon Musk’s Twitter bans accounts of CNN, NYT, WaPo journalists. Oliver Darcy, CNN, 15 December 2022

^ Re: the banning of reporters who have tweeted about Elon Musk’s jet, Twitter’s head of trust & safety Ella Irwin tells me: “Without commenting on any specific accounts, I can confirm that we will suspend any accounts that violate our privacy policies and put other users at risk.” Alex Heath, Twitter, 15 December 2022

^ Twitter suspends journalists who wrote about owner Elon Musk. Associated Press, 15 December 2022

^ “Know Your Twitter Terms: ‘Block’ vs. ‘Mute'”. Wired. Retrieved July 20, 2020.

^ Gibbs, Samuel (May 13, 2014). “13 reasons to mute people on Twitter”. The Guardian. Retrieved July 21, 2020.

^ “Now every Twitter web user can ‘soft block’ annoying followers”. The Verge. October 11, 2021. Retrieved October 12, 2021.

^ “Using Twitter with Your Phone”. Twitter Support. Archived from the original on March 15, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2010. We currently support 2-way (sending and receiving) Twitter SMS via short codes and one-way (sending only) via long codes.

^ a b Stone, Biz (October 30, 2009). “There’s a List for That”. Retrieved February 1, 2010.

^ Brown, Amanda (March 2, 2011). “The tricky business of business tweeting”. The Irish Times. Retrieved April 28, 2011.

^ a b Porter, Jon (September 1, 2020). “Twitter quote tweets are now easier to find”. The Verge. Retrieved May 23, 2021.

^ Shu, Catherine (April 7, 2015). “Twitter Officially Launches Its “Retweet With Comment” Feature”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 22, 2021.

^ “Twitter officially kills off favorites and replaces them with likes”. The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved November 4, 2015.

^ Smith, Catharine (December 8, 2011). “9 Things You Need To Know About Twitter’s Massive Redesign”. HuffPost. Retrieved August 16, 2021.

^ “Diese Tweets wurden am häufigsten geteilt”. (in German). May 27, 2020.

^ “Download the free Twitter app | Twitter”. Retrieved July 30, 2019.

^ Stutzman, Fred (April 11, 2007). “The 12-Minute Definitive Guide to Twitter”. AOL Developer Network. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008. Retrieved November 12, 2008.

^ Johnson, Steven (June 5, 2009). “How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live”. Time. Archived from the original on May 11, 2010. Retrieved February 13, 2011.

^ Santiago, Evan (September 3, 2022). “The edit button may finally be coming to Twitter. Here’s when you’ll be able to use it”. The Charlotte Observer. Retrieved September 4, 2022.

^ Strachan, Donald (February 19, 2009). “Twitter: How To Set Up Your Account”. The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved February 13, 2011.

^ Magdaleno, Alex (June 11, 2014). “Raise Your ‘Hashflags’: Twitter Reintroduces World Cup Hashtags”. Mashable. Retrieved May 16, 2021.

^ “Twitter hashflags call out support for the Asian American community: Thursday Wake-Up Call”. March 18, 2021. Retrieved May 16, 2021.

^ JohnsonFebruary 2, Lauren; 2016. “Twitter’s Branded Emojis Come With a Million-Dollar Commitment”. Retrieved May 16, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)

^ Peters, Jay (May 20, 2020). “Twitter is testing a way to let you limit replies to your tweets”. Retrieved July 14, 2021.

^ Peters, Jay (July 13, 2021). “Twitter will let you change who can reply to a tweet after you post it”. The Verge. Retrieved July 14, 2021.

^ Andrews, Robert (March 27, 2009). “Twitter Brings Back UK SMS; Vodafone First, Others To Follow”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved June 7, 2009.

^ “”. November 16, 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2010.

^ Kutty, Darpana (October 15, 2009). “Twitter, Bharti Airtel Tie-Up To Activate Twitter SMS Service in India”. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “SMStweet :: Send Twitter Message sing SMS in India”. India. Archived from the original on September 21, 2018. Retrieved April 3, 2010.

^ Balanarayan, N.T. (December 17, 2009). “Tweeting Via SMS Is In, the Way It Should Be”. Daily News and Analysis. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “Update Twitter or Plurk by sending an SMS to a Singapore or Malaysia local number”. Singapore. Archived from the original on January 25, 2013. Retrieved April 3, 2010.

^ a b c d e “About Twitter’s Link Service “. Twitter Help Center (module of Twitter). Archived from the original on February 25, 2011. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ a b Penner, Carolyn (June 7, 2011). “Link Sharing Made Simple”. Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved June 9, 2011.

^ Binder, Matt (April 28, 2020). “Twitter quietly deletes millions of accounts from the old text message days”. Mashable. Retrieved January 6, 2021.

^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 27, 2020). “Twitter turns off its original SMS service in most countries”. The Verge. Retrieved January 6, 2021.

^ “Coming soon to Twitter: More room to tweet”. Associated Press. May 24, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.

^ Lever, Rob (May 24, 2016). “Twitter eases 140 character limit”. Yahoo Tech. Retrieved May 25, 2016.

^ Newton, Casey (March 30, 2017). “Twitter redesigns replies so usernames don’t count against the 140-character limit”. The Verge.

^ a b “Giving you more characters to express yourself”. Retrieved September 27, 2017.

^ a b c Garrett, Sean (June 8, 2010). “Links and Twitter: Length Shouldn’t Matter”. Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Metz, Cade (September 2, 2010). “Twitter Tightens Grip on Own Firehose”. The Register. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Weisenthal, Joe (May 6, 2009). “Twitter Switches from TinyURL to”. Business Insider. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “Twitter now with integrated photo-sharing service and completely new twitter search”. Techshrimp. June 1, 2011. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 1, 2011.

^ a b Mike Flacy “Twitter photo sharing goes live for all users”, Digital Trends. August 9, 2011. Retrieved August 10, 2011.

^ Twitter Help center: Picture Descriptions – How to make images accessible for people

^ “Accessible images for everyone”.

^ Lyons, Kim (April 7, 2022). “Twitter rolls out its ALT badge and improved image descriptions”. The Verge. Retrieved April 7, 2022.

^ “Your Twitter Feed Is About to Be Flooded With Polls”. Wired. October 21, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015.

^ “Twitter and CBS News to partner for live stream of Republican and Democratic National Conventions”. CBS News. Retrieved July 11, 2016.

^ a b c “Twitter plans to broadcast live video 24 hours a day”. The Verge. April 26, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ Brodkin, Jon (April 5, 2016). “Twitter buys NFL streaming rights for 10 Thursday Night Football games”. Ars Technica. Retrieved April 5, 2016.

^ “Twitter still thinks it’s a TV platform — and here are its dozen new shows”. Re/code. Vox Media. May 2, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ a b “Twitter Pushes Live-Video Deals With MLB, NFL, Viacom, BuzzFeed, Live Nation, WNBA and More”. Variety. May 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ Spangler, Todd (August 29, 2017). “NFL Sets Kickoff of Twitter Live Show for 2017–18 Season”. Variety. Retrieved August 30, 2017.

^ “Twitter signed a new live video deal with the NFL that doesn’t include games”. The Verge. May 11, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ “PGA Tour, Twitter Ink Live-Streaming Deal for Coverage of Thursday, Friday Rounds”. January 5, 2017. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ “Sinclair Partners to Revamp, Relaunch Sports Network”. Broadcasting and Cable. April 14, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.

^ “American Sports Network, Campus Insiders, and 120 Sports Announce Mega-Merger Deal”. Underdog Dynasty (SBNation). Vox Media. April 13, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.

^ “Is Twitter the new home for Southern Miss football?”. Sun Herald. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ Roth, Emma (October 21, 2021). “Twitter is finally letting everyone create Spaces”. The Verge. Retrieved October 22, 2021.

^ a b “Twitter starts testing its own version of Stories, called ‘Fleets,’ which disappear after 24 hours”. TechCrunch. March 4, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.

^ “Twitter brings Fleets to India, for ‘those uncomfortable with public tweets'”. The Indian Express. June 10, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.

^ Hayes, Dade (November 17, 2020). “Twitter Launches Disappearing ‘Fleets’ Globally After Tests In Select Markets”. Deadline. Retrieved January 6, 2021.

^ Newton, Casey (November 18, 2020). “What Twitter Fleets signals about the future of the company”. The Verge. Retrieved November 18, 2020.

^ Lyons, Kim (June 1, 2021). “Twitter’s Fleets are getting Stories-like ads”. The Verge. Retrieved June 6, 2021.

^ Heath, Alex (July 14, 2021). “Twitter is shutting down Fleets, its expiring tweets feature”. The Verge. Retrieved July 14, 2021.

^ “Bloggers back media against youth league”. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2010.

^ “Top Twitter Trends of 2009”. Retrieved April 3, 2010.

^ Woollaston, Vicky. “Justin Bieber fans beat Twitter ‘block’ | Web User magazine”. Archived from the original on November 22, 2012. Retrieved January 20, 2012.

^ Weiner, David (June 21, 2009). “#Thatsafrican – When Twitter Went Racist?”. Huffington Post. Retrieved April 3, 2010.

^ “Thingsdarkiessay causes a Twitter storm”. South Africa: Independent Online. November 5, 2009. Archived from the original on January 30, 2016. Retrieved January 11, 2012.

^ “Twitter Lists!”. Support forum at n.d. Archived from the original on December 22, 2009. Retrieved February 13, 2011.

^ Pierce, David (October 6, 2015). “Meet Moments, Twitter’s Most Important New Feature Ever”. Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Newton, Casey (October 6, 2015). “Twitter launches Moments, its dead-simple tab for browsing the best tweets”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (September 28, 2016). “Twitter opens its Moments feature up to everyone”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ a b c d e Huszár, Ferenc; Ktena, Sofia Ira; O’Brien, Conor; Belli, Luca; Schlaikjer, Andrew; Hardt, Moritz (October 21, 2021). “Algorithmic Amplification of Politics on Twitter” (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 119 (1): 27. arXiv:2110.11010. doi:10.1073/pnas.2025334119. PMC 8740571. PMID 34934011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 23, 2021. Retrieved October 23, 2021.

^ “Twitter’s algorithm favours right-leaning politics, research finds”. BBC News. October 22, 2021. Retrieved October 23, 2021.


^ “Twitter apps for phones, tablets and computers”. Twitter. Archived from the original on April 2, 2017. Retrieved April 6, 2017.

^ Byford, Sam (April 6, 2017). “Twitter Lite is a faster, leaner mobile web version of Twitter”. The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved April 6, 2017.

^ Russell, Jon (April 6, 2016). “Twitter launches a ‘lite’ mobile web app that’s optimized for emerging markets”. TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved April 6, 2017.

^ “Inside Twitter Clients – An Analysis of 500 Million Tweets”. Sysomos. November 2009. Archived from the original on September 1, 2010. Retrieved August 23, 2010.

^ a b c d e f Perez, Sarah (June 3, 2021). “Twitter launches its premium subscription, Twitter Blue, initially in Canada and Australia”. TechCrunch. Retrieved July 14, 2021.

^ Peters, Jay (November 9, 2021). “Twitter will now let you pay to undo tweets and read ad-free news in the US”. The Verge. Retrieved April 24, 2022.

^ Jackson, Jon (November 9, 2021). “‘Undo Tweet’: Twitter’s New Premium Service Gives Users Much-Wanted Feature, for a Price”. Newsweek – via MSN.

^ Lawler, Richard (January 20, 2022). “Twitter brings NFTs to the timeline as hexagon-shaped profile pictures”. The Verge. Retrieved March 20, 2022.

^ Brodkin, Jon (April 6, 2022). “Twitter plans edit button, says Elon Musk’s poll had nothing to do with it”. Ars Technica. Retrieved April 14, 2022.

^ Roth, Emma (July 3, 2022). “Now Android users on Twitter can pay to drop the Spaces button too”. The Verge. Retrieved July 4, 2022.

^ a b Roth, Emma (November 1, 2022). “Twitter discontinues ad-free articles for Blue subscribers”. The Verge. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ a b Peters, Jay (November 1, 2022). “Elon Musk will let you pay $8 to be a verified ‘lord’ on Twitter”. The Verge. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ a b Roth, Emma (November 5, 2022). “Elon Musk’s $7.99 Twitter Blue with verification is ‘coming soon’ on iOS”. The Verge. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Binder, Matt (November 8, 2022). “Can an $8 Twitter subscription bail out Elon Musk? Let’s look at the numbers”. Mashable. Retrieved November 18, 2022.

^ O’Sullivan, Donie; Korn, Jennifer (November 6, 2022). “Elon Musk delays $8 ‘blue check’ Twitter verification plan until after the midterms”. CNN. Retrieved November 9, 2022.

^ Belanger, Ashley (November 11, 2022). “Twitter quietly drops $8 paid verification; “tricking people not OK,” Musk says”. Ars Technica. Retrieved November 12, 2022.

^ Lerman, Rachel; Zakrzewski, Cat (November 11, 2022). “Elon Musk’s first big Twitter product paused after fake accounts spread”. Washington Post. Retrieved November 17, 2022.

^ Allyn, Bobby (December 12, 2022). “Elon Musk relaunches Twitter Blue with higher price for iPhone users”. NPR. Retrieved December 12, 2022.

^ Hatmaker, Taylor (September 1, 2021). “Twitter rolls out paid subscription ‘Super Follows’ to let you cash in on your tweets”. Tech Crunch. Retrieved September 28, 2021.

^ Perez, Sarah (September 12, 2021). “Twitter Super Follows has generated only around $6k+ in its first two weeks”. Tech Crunch. Retrieved September 28, 2021.

^ Gartenberg, Chaim (March 6, 2021). “Twitter is testing a new Tip Jar feature for sending money to your favorite accounts”. The Verge. Retrieved May 7, 2021.

^ Rodriguez, Salvador (September 23, 2021). “You can now get paid in bitcoin to use Twitter”. CNBC. Retrieved September 23, 2021.

^ Carman, Ashley (August 27, 2021). “Twitter starts launching Ticketed Spaces for some iOS users”. The Verge. Retrieved September 28, 2021.

^ Mattackal, Lisa Pauline (April 22, 2022). “Twitter, Stripe pilot cryptocurrency payments for creators”. Reuters. Retrieved April 24, 2022.

^ Popper, Ben (September 8, 2014). “You can now buy things directly on Twitter”. The Verge. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Porter, Jon (July 28, 2021). “Twitter pilots a new shopping section for brands”. The Verge. Retrieved July 28, 2021.

^ “Twitter begins testing ‘Shops’ feature to grow ecommerce”. The Express Tribune. March 10, 2022. Retrieved March 10, 2022.

^ “Walmart will be the first retailer to test Twitter’s new livestream shopping platform”. TechCrunch. November 22, 2021. Retrieved December 2, 2021.

^ “Global Social Networks Ranked by Number of Users”. Statista. Retrieved June 18, 2017.

^ Fiegerman, Seth. “Twitter is now losing users in the U.S.” CNNMoney. Retrieved March 23, 2018.

^ “comScore Report: Twitter Usage Exploding in Brazil, Indonesia and Venezuela”. Bill Hartzer. August 11, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ “The Netherlands lead Global Markets in reach”. February 10, 2011. Archived from the original on April 15, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ a b Miller, Claire Cain (August 25, 2009). “Who’s Driving Twitter’s Popularity? Not Teens”. The New York Times. Retrieved September 18, 2009.

^ Lipsman, Andrew (September 2, 2009). “What Ashton vs. CNN Foretold About the Changing Demographics of Twitter”. comScore. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009. Retrieved September 18, 2009.

^ Cheng, Alex; Evans, Mark (June 2009). “Inside Twitter – An In-Depth Look Inside the Twitter World”. Sysomos. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Bluff, Brian (May 2010). “Who Uses Twitter?”. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved September 22, 2010.

^ Chen, Adrian (May 17, 2011). “Why So Many Black People Are On Twitter”. Gawker. Univision Communications. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ Saint, Nick (April 30, 2010). “Why Is Twitter More Popular With Black People Than White People?”. Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ Taylor, Chris (September 8, 2011). “Twitter has 100 million active users”. Mashable.

^ “Twitter Reports First Quarter 2014 Results”. Archived from the original on June 9, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ “Twitter, Inc Common Stock”. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ Duggan, Maeve (December 30, 2013). “Social Media Update 2013”. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ Evette Alexander, Polarization in the Twittersphere: What 86 million tweets reveal about the political makeup of American Twitter users and how they engage with news Knight Foundation/

^ Deen Freelon Associate Professor in the Hussman School of Journalism and Media, Tweeting Left, Right & Center: How users and attention are distributed across Twitter, Knight Foundation.

^ “Twitter reaches half a billion accounts – More than 140 millions in the U.S.” Semiocast. Archived from the original on October 11, 2014. Retrieved October 7, 2014.

^ “Social Media Update 2016”. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. November 11, 2016. Retrieved March 23, 2018.

^ Wojcik, Stefan; Hughes, Adam (April 24, 2019). “Sizing Up Twitter Users”. Pew Research Center.

^ Kelly, Ryan, ed. (August 12, 2009). “Twitter Study – August 2009”. Twitter Study Reveals Interesting Results About Usage (PDF). San Antonio, Texas: Pear Analytics. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 15, 2011.

^ boyd, danah (August 16, 2009). “Twitter: “pointless babble” or peripheral awareness + social grooming?”. Retrieved September 19, 2009.

^ Avery Holton, Kang Baek, Mark Coddington, Yaschur, Carolyn (2014). “Seeking and Sharing: Motivations for Linking on Twitter”. Communication Research Reports. 31 (1): 33–40. doi:10.1080/08824096.2013.843165. S2CID 143390964.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)

^ Murphy, David (April 13, 2014). “44 Percent of Twitter Accounts Have Never Tweeted”. PC Magazine.

^ “Share of U.S. adults using social media, including Facebook, is mostly unchanged since 2018”. Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 11, 2020.

^ Goldsmith, Belinda (April 29, 2009). “Many Twitters Are Quick Quitters: Study”. Reuters. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ Madrigal, Alexis C. (April 24, 2019). “Twitter Is Not America”. The Atlantic. Retrieved July 11, 2020.

^ Hals, Tom; Balu, Nivedita (September 20, 2021). “Twitter seeks to settle 2016 class action lawsuit for $800 million”. Denver Gazette. Archived from the original on September 21, 2021. Retrieved September 20, 2021.

^ a b c d Rehak, Melanie (August 8, 2014). “Who Made That Twitter Bird?”. The New York Times Magazine. Archived from the original on August 9, 2014. Retrieved November 22, 2021.

^ Freeman, Eric (August 2011). “Twitter’s Logo Is Named After Larry Bird”. Yahoo!Sports. Retrieved March 1, 2012.

^ Halliday, Josh (June 7, 2012). “No flipping the bird! Twitter unveils strict usage guidelines for new logo”. The Guardian. Retrieved October 11, 2014.

^ Griggs, Brandon (June 7, 2012). “Twitter’s bird logo gets a makeover”. CNN. Retrieved June 7, 2012.

^ Arthur, Charles (April 13, 2010). “Twitter Unveils ‘Promoted Tweets’ Ad Plan – Twitter To Let Advertisers Pay for Tweets To Appear in Search Results”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Kimberley, Sara (April 13, 2010). “Twitter Debuts ‘Promoted Tweets’ Ad Platform”. MediaWeek (U.K. edition). Retrieved February 5, 2011.

^ Laurent, Olivier (May 11, 2011). “Photo agency’s CEO addresses TwitPic controversy”. British Journal of Photography. London. Archived from the original on August 3, 2011. Retrieved August 17, 2011. The deal will give WENN exclusive rights to sell images posted on the TwitPic service.

^ “Twitter Ad Revenues to Grow 210% to $139.5 Million in 2011”. Retrieved May 9, 2022.

^ Wasserman, Todd (June 9, 2011). “Twitter Will Automate Ad-Buying by the End of the Year”. Retrieved November 14, 2011.

^ a b Miners, Zach (April 30, 2013). “Twitter opens self-service ads to everyone”. CMO. IDG Communications. Retrieved August 18, 2014.

^ “Twitter Rolls Out Promoted Tweets for Mobile”; Wasserman, Todd. March 20, 2012.

^ Swant, Mary. “Twitter Is Helping Brands Drive Conversations With Instant Unlock Cards”. Adweek. Retrieved August 4, 2016.

^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth (October 26, 2017). “Twitter bans Russian government-owned news sites RT and Sputnik from buying ads”. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 25, 2020.

^ “Twitter Bans Ads From Russia Today and the Sputnik Network, Citing Election Meddling”. Time. October 27, 2017. Archived from the original on October 27, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2018.

^ “Twitter Bans Political Ads on Its Platform, Pressure Up on Defiant Facebook”. News18. October 31, 2019. Retrieved October 31, 2019.

^ Calma, Justine (April 22, 2022). “Twitter bans ‘misleading’ ads about climate change”. The Verge. Retrieved April 23, 2022.

^ a b Vaughan-Nichols, Steven (August 30, 2012). “How Twitter tweets your tweets with open source”. ZDNet. Retrieved September 10, 2012.

^ Gomes, Lee (June 22, 2009). “The Pied Piper of Pay”. Forbes. Retrieved June 16, 2009.

^ King, Ryan (September 25, 2009). “Twitter on Ruby”. Retrieved October 31, 2009. We recently migrated Twitter from a custom Ruby 1.8.6 build to a Ruby Enterprise Edition release candidate, courtesy of Phusion. Our primary motivation was the integration of Brent’s MBARI patches, which increase memory stability.

^ Payne (January 16, 2008). “Announcing Starling”. Twitter. Archived from the original on January 20, 2008. Retrieved January 11, 2009.

^ Venners, Bill (April 3, 2009). “Twitter on Scala”. Artima Developer. Retrieved June 17, 2009.

^ Malik, Om (August 17, 2013). “How Twitter scaled its infrastructure to handle record tweet-per-second days”. GIGAOM. GIGAOM. Retrieved August 17, 2013.

^ “Top 10 Web APIs – Bridging Today’s Technology”. WebDAM. January 11, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ “Twitter API Wiki / FrontPage”. Retrieved September 18, 2010.

^ “Introducing the Twitter API | Twitter Blogs”. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ “Ruby on Rails Tutorial (Rails 5)”. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ “Twitter’s 10 Year Struggle with Developer Relations | Nordic APIs |”. Nordic APIs. March 23, 2016. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ Parr, Ben (April 25, 2010). “Twitter Launches Countdown to OAuthcalypse”. Mashable. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ “Twitter to launch URL shortener and may block TinyURL and”. ComputerWeekly. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ Streams, Kimber (November 11, 2012). “Tweetro says it’s ‘completely crippled’ by Twitter’s strict 100,000 user token limit”. The Verge. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ Wauters, Robin (August 17, 2012). “Twitter API Changes Set Maximum User Cap for 3rd Parties”. Retrieved May 9, 2013.

^ Ha, Anthony (August 16, 2012). “Twitter Handcuffs Client Apps With New API Changes”. TechCrunch. Retrieved December 18, 2016.

^ “Twitter introduces a new, fully rebuilt developer API, launching next week”. TechCrunch. July 16, 2020. Retrieved April 28, 2022.

^ “Twitter wants to win back developer trus”. TechCrunch. April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 28, 2022.

^ O’Brien, Terrence (April 17, 2012). “Twitter introduces Innovators Patent Agreement, vows to not abuse patent system”. Engadget. AOL. Retrieved August 11, 2012.

^ “Twitter / OpenSource”. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.

^ “Open Source Thanks”. Twitter. Archived from the original on April 15, 2013. Retrieved April 18, 2013.

^ “Open Source”. Twitter. Retrieved January 4, 2017.

^ “Search: Stars>1”. GitHub. Retrieved February 27, 2020.

^ “A Brief History Of Twitter’s Many Redesigns”. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Calore, Michael (September 16, 2010). “Take a Tour of the New Twitter”. Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Ostrow, Adam. “Here Comes the New”. Mashable. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Grove, Jennifer Van (September 15, 2010). “The New Twitter Is an Attack on All Desktop Apps”. Mashable. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Houston, Thomas (December 8, 2011). “Twitter app and website redesign: hands-on pictures and video”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ “Twitter Arabic, Farsi, Hebrew and Urdu version launch”. BBC News. March 7, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2012.

^ “Twitter Now Available in Basque, Czech, Greek”. PC Magazine. August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.

^ O’Carroll, Lisa (September 18, 2012). “Twitter redesign makes more of photos”. The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Popper, Ben (April 8, 2015). “Twitter is killing off its Discover tab”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Newton, Casey (January 26, 2017). “Twitter replaces the Moments tab with Explore”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Musil, Steven. “Twitter tests new desktop layouts”. CNET. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Bright, Peter (September 6, 2018). “Progressive Web Apps moving mainstream as Twitter makes its mobile site the main one”. Ars Technica. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Gallagher, Sean (July 15, 2019). “Twitter is changing to be more like mobile app”. Ars Technica. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Lee, Dami (July 15, 2019). “Twitter desktop redesign adopts some of its mobile app’s best features”. The Verge. Retrieved July 17, 2019.

^ Gonsalves, Antone (June 25, 2010). “Twitter, Feds Settle Security Charges – Twitter Must Establish and Maintain a ‘Comprehensive Information Security Program’ and Allow Third-Party Review of the Program Biannually for the 10 Years”. InformationWeek. Archived from the original on October 23, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “Twitter Warns news Organisations Amid Syrian Hacking Attacks”. Descrier. April 30, 2013. Retrieved April 30, 2013.

^ Rodriguez, Salvador (May 23, 2013). “Twitter adds two-step verification option to help fend off hackers”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 10, 2013.

^ a b Statt, Nick (July 15, 2020). “Barack Obama, Joe Biden, Elon Musk, Apple, and others hacked in unprecedented Twitter attack”. The Verge. Retrieved July 15, 2020.

^ Conger, Kate; Popper, Nathaniel (July 17, 2020). “Hackers Tell the Story of the Twitter Attack From the Inside”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020. Retrieved July 17, 2020.

^ McMillan, Robert; Volz, Dustin (July 19, 2020). “FBI Investigates Twitter Hack Amid Broader Concerns About Platform’s Security”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 7, 2020.

^ “Twitter confirms zero-day used to expose data of 5.4 million accounts”. BleepingComputer. Retrieved August 11, 2022.

^ “Twitter Confirms Data Breach That Exposed Data Of 5.4 Million Users; Attackers May Still Have Data”. News18. August 8, 2022. Retrieved August 11, 2022.

^ Paganini, Pierluigi (August 5, 2022). “Twitter confirms zero-day used to access data of 5.4 million accounts”. Security Affairs. Retrieved August 11, 2022.

^ Times, The Brussels. “Twitter admits to data breach exposing contact info for 5.4 million accounts”. Retrieved August 11, 2022.

^ Walker, Rob (February 15, 2009). “Consumed  – Fail Whale”. The New York Times Magazine. p. 17. Retrieved February 15, 2009.(registration required)

^ Whyte, Murray (June 1, 2008). “Tweet, Tweet – There’s Been an Earthquake”. Toronto Star. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “La vera storia della balena di Twitter” [The real story of the Twitter whale]. La Stampa (in Italian). January 24, 2015. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved August 30, 2019.

^ Simmons, Jen [@jensimmons] (September 2, 2007). “Oh, fail whale, you are making my website fail. No more wordpress-twitter-crossposting” (Tweet) – via Twitter.

^ “Killing the Fail Whale With Twitter’s Christopher Fry”. Wired. November 25, 2013. Retrieved May 4, 2018.

^ “Twitter Growing Pains Cause Lots of Downtime in 2007”. Royal Pingdom (blog of Pingdom). December 19, 2007. Archived from the original on December 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Dorsey, Jack (January 15, 2008). “MacWorld”. Twitter Blog (blog of Twitter). Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ Kuramoto, Jake (January 15, 2008). “MacWorld Brings Twitter to its Knees”. Oracle AppsLab. Retrieved May 7, 2008.

^ Stone, Biz (June 6, 2009). “Not Playing Ball”. Twitter.

^ Kanalley, Craig (March 12, 2013). “Why Twitter Verifies Users: The History Behind the Blue Checkmark”. Huffington Post. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ Cashmore, Pete (June 11, 2009). “Twitter Launches Verified Accounts”. Mashable. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ “About verified accounts”. Archived from the original on July 20, 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)

^ “Announcing an Application Process for Verified Accounts”. Twitter. July 19, 2016.

^ Burgess, Matt (July 20, 2016). “Twitter opens verification to all”. Wired. Retrieved September 16, 2016.

^ Wagner, Kurt (September 12, 2013). “Twitter Unveils Exclusive Feature For Verified Users”. Mashable. Retrieved June 9, 2014.

^ Harrison, Stephen (December 4, 2020). “Twitter Wants to Use Wikipedia to Help Determine Who Gets a Blue Checkmark”. Slate Magazine. Retrieved December 4, 2020.

^ Statt, Nick (December 17, 2020). “Twitter is launching its new verification policy on January 20th”. The Verge. Retrieved February 19, 2021.

^ Heath, Alex (October 31, 2022). “Twitter is planning to start charging $20 per month for verification”. The Verge. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Sato, Mia (November 9, 2022). “Twitter’s new gray “official” checks are rolling out to some high-profile accounts”. The Verge. Retrieved November 9, 2022.

^ Lopatto, Elizabeth (November 11, 2022). “Twitter ‘Official’ gray check mark returns, now that ‘Verified’ is meaningless”. The Verge. Retrieved November 18, 2022.

^ a b Rushe, Dominic (January 8, 2011). “Icelandic MP Fights US Demand for Her Twitter Account Details”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved January 10, 2011.

^ “How to Hide Your Followers & Who You Are Following on Twitter | The Classroom | Synonym”. November 9, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.

^ “Twitter Privacy Policy”. Twitter. May 14, 2007. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved March 11, 2009.

^ Hansell, Saul (July 16, 2009). “Advertisers Are Watching Your Every Tweet”. The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2009.

^ McCarthy, Caroline (June 12, 2009). “Twitter Power Players Get Shiny ‘Verified’ Badges”. CNET. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on May 3, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2011.

^ “Twitter Subpoena” (PDF). January 17, 2009. Retrieved January 10, 2011.

^ “Twitter Inc., Unknown Posters Sued by Athlete Known as ‘CTB’ at U.K. Court” May 20, 2011

^ “Twitter users served with privacy injunction”. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ “Twitter’s European boss Tony Wang gives legal warning”. BBC News. UK. May 25, 2011. Retrieved May 25, 2011.

^ Smith, Lewis (May 26, 2011). “Twitter chief hints he may have to divulge users’ names”. The Independent. UK. Retrieved December 13, 2011.

^ “Twitter Buys Dasient Security Startup To Combat Spam”. The Huffington Post. January 24, 2012.

^ “Twitter to selectively ‘censor’ tweets by country”. BBC News. January 27, 2012.

^ “Twitter Blog – Tweets still must flow” January 26, 2012. Retrieved January 27, 2012.

^ Kulish, Nicholas (October 18, 2012). “Twitter Blocks Germans’ Access to Neo-Nazi Group”. The New York Times. Archived from the original on October 18, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ “Twitter removes French anti-Semitic tweets”. BBC News. BBC. October 19, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2017.

^ “Twitter Is Trying to Block Images of James Foley’s Death”. Yahoo! Tech. August 20, 2014. Retrieved September 6, 2014.

^ Wexler, Nu [@wexler] (August 19, 2014). “Twitter policy on media concerning a deceased user:” (Tweet) – via Twitter.

^ “Ireland to become privacy regulator for 300m Twitter users”. Irish Times. Retrieved May 12, 2015.

^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (April 8, 2020). “Twitter notifies users that it’s now sharing more data with advertisers”. The Verge. Retrieved April 9, 2020.

^ “Twitter is fighting election chaos by urging users to quote tweet instead of retweet”. The Verge. October 9, 2020. Retrieved October 9, 2020.

^ Bell, K. (December 17, 2020). “Retweets are back to normal as Twitter ends its quote tweet experiment”. Engadget. Retrieved March 20, 2022.

^ Milmo, Dan (May 26, 2022). “Twitter fined $150m for handing users’ contact details to advertisers”. The Guardian. Retrieved May 27, 2022.

^ “Twitter’s Tony Wang issues apology to abuse victims”, BBC News, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.

^ “Of Pride, Prejudice and Harassment on Twitter” The New York Times, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.

^ “Twitter updates its rules for users, after uproar over rape, bomb threats”, CNET, August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013.

^ “Twitter announces sweeping update to reporting, blocking tools”. Ars Technica. December 2, 2014.

^ “Building a safer Twitter”. Retrieved July 30, 2019.

^ “Twitter unveils new tools to fight harassment”. CBS News.

^ “Twitter Gives Harassed Users a Little Ammo”. December 4, 2014. Retrieved July 30, 2019.

^ Saleem, Fahad. “Twitter Inc (TWTR) Could Use Gamergate Autoblocker Model To Block Millions of Fake Accounts?”. TechInsider.

^ “Blocked on Twitter: Software’s limits in the fight against online hate”. The Globe and Mail. Toronto. December 4, 2014.

^ Wofford, Taylor (November 29, 2014). “One Woman’s New Tool to Stop Gamergate Harassment on Twitter”. Newsweek. Retrieved December 6, 2014.

^ Tiku, Nitasha (February 5, 2015). “Twitter CEO: ‘We suck at dealing with abuse'”. The Verge. Retrieved February 5, 2015.

^ Twitter’s corporate blog, “Announcing the Twitter Trust & Safety Council”

^ Siegfried, Evan (August 23, 2016). GOP GPS. Skyhorse. ISBN 9781510717336. Retrieved November 12, 2017.

^ Albright, Dann (February 29, 2016). “Is Twitter’s Trust & Safety Council a Front for Censorship?”. Makeuseof. Retrieved November 12, 2017.

^ Puddephatt, Andrew (February 11, 2016). “Just Another ‘Black Box’? First Thoughts on Twitter’s Trust And Safety Council”. CircleID. Retrieved November 12, 2017.

^ Soave, Robby (February 20, 2016). “Did Twitter’s Orwellian ‘Trust and Safety’ Council Get Robert Stacy McCain Banned?”. Retrieved November 12, 2017.

^ Collins, Ben; Zadrozny, Brandy (July 21, 2020). “Twitter bans 7,000 QAnon accounts, limits 150,000 others as part of broad crackdown”. NBC News. Retrieved July 21, 2020.

^ a b Peters, Jay (September 1, 2021). “Twitter’s new Safety Mode autoblocks abusive accounts”. The Verge. Retrieved September 23, 2021.

^ Vasile, Cosmin. “Twitter launches Super Follows and Safety Mode”. Phone Arena. Retrieved May 18, 2022.

^ a b “Revived lawsuit says Twitter DMs are like handing ISIS a satellite phone”. The Verge. August 30, 2016. Retrieved August 31, 2016.

^ “Lawsuit Blames Twitter for ISIS Terrorist Attack”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 16, 2016.

^ a b “Can Twitter Be Liable for ISIS Tweets?”. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 20, 2016.

^ “Twitter is not legally responsible for the rise of ISIS, rules California district court”. The Verge. Vox Media. August 10, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016.

^ “Twitter Suspends Russian Satirical Accounts, Raising Free Speech Questions | News”. The Moscow Times. Retrieved June 2, 2016.

^ Times, The Moscow; network, part of the New East (June 2, 2016). “Twitter unblocks spoof Putin account after widespread criticism”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 2, 2016.

^ Hern, Alex (May 31, 2016). “Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and Microsoft sign EU hate speech code”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 7, 2016.

^ Weise, Elizabeth (August 18, 2016). “Twitter suspends 235,000 accounts for extremism”. USA Today. Retrieved November 20, 2016.

^ “Twitter suspended over 1.6 lakh terror-promoting accounts in six months”. Economic Times. May 10, 2019. Archived from the original on May 31, 2019. Retrieved February 22, 2021.

^ Holt, Kris (May 10, 2019). “Twitter suspensions for promoting terrorism drop yet again”. Engadget. Retrieved May 10, 2019.

^ Abril, Danielle (May 10, 2019). “Twitter’s User-Reported Violations Jumped 19%—but the Number of Accounts Punished Dropped”. Fortune.

^ “Twitter reports fall in extreme content”. SBS News. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.

^ “TWITTER HAS SUSPENDED MORE THAN 166,000 ACCOUNTS RELATED TO PROMOTION OF TERRORISM”. Tech2. Firstpost. May 10, 2019. Retrieved May 10, 2019.

^ Bell, Karissa (July 28, 2020). “Twitter will block links promoting hate speech and violence”. Engadget. Retrieved July 28, 2020.

^ “Twitter bans 70,000 QAnon accounts as conservatives report lost followers”. The Verge. Retrieved January 12, 2020.

^ Timberg, Craig; Romm, Tony (July 25, 2019). “It’s not just the Russians anymore as Iranians and others turn up disinformation efforts ahead of 2020 vote”. The Washington Post.

^ “Twitter to add labels to U.S. political candidates”. CBS. May 23, 2018. Retrieved May 23, 2018.

^ Scola, Nancy (May 23, 2018). “Twitter to verify election candidates in the midterms”. Politico. Retrieved May 23, 2018.

^ “Twitter and Facebook remove accounts in interference crackdown”. York Press. Retrieved December 20, 2019.

^ “When U.S. blamed Saudi crown prince for role in Khashoggi killing, fake Twitter accounts went to war”. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 7, 2021.

^ “Understanding Global Disinformation and Information Operations: Insights from ASPI’s new analytic website”. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. March 30, 2022. Archived from the original on April 29, 2022.

^ Dubbin, Rob. “The Rise Of Twitter Bots”. The New Yorker. Retrieved May 15, 2014.

^ Miners, Zach (May 6, 2014). “Bot or Not? Researchers make an app to sniff out bots on Twitter”. PC World. Retrieved May 15, 2014.

^ Urbina, Ian (August 10, 2013). “I Flirt and Tweet. Follow Me at No. Socialbot”. The New York Times. Retrieved May 15, 2014.

^ D’onfro, Jillian (October 4, 2013). “Twitter Admits 5% Of Its ‘Users’ Are Fake”. Business Insider. Retrieved May 15, 2014.

^ Jack Dorsey (July 8, 2011). Impressions on the White House Twitter Townhall. Retrieved July 10, 2011 – via National Archives.

^ Buettner, Ricardo & Buettner, Katharina (2016). A Systematic Literature Review of Twitter Research from a Socio-Political Revolution Perspective. 49th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Kauai, Hawaii: IEEE. doi:10.13140/RG.2.1.4239.9442.

^ Siddique, Haroon (November 12, 2010). “#IAmSpartacus campaign explodes on Twitter in support of airport joker”. The Guardian. Retrieved November 20, 2016.

^ Gabbatt, Adam; Taylor, Matthew (May 22, 2011). “Scottish newspaper identifies injunction footballer”. The Guardian. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ “Twitter’s influence on the Arab Spring”. The Globe and Mail. August 19, 2011. Archived from the original on July 7, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2016.

^ Fox, Zoe (June 8, 2012). “How the Arab World Uses Facebook and Twitter”. Mashable. Retrieved November 20, 2016.

^ Palmer, Ewan (October 12, 2021). “QAnon conspiracy theories and hate speech flood Twitter, despite crackdown”. Newsweek. Retrieved January 20, 2022.

^ Grygiel, Jennifer. “Hate speech is still easy to find on social media”. The Conversation. Retrieved January 20, 2022.

^ “GCHQ leak lists UK cyber-spies’ hacking tools”. BBC News. July 15, 2014. Retrieved July 16, 2014.

^ “JTRIG Tools and Techniques”. Retrieved July 16, 2014.

^ Kelly, Makena (August 19, 2019). “Facebook and Twitter uncover Chinese trolls spreading doubts about Hong Kong protests”. The Verge. Retrieved August 28, 2019.

^ Inocencio, Ramy (August 20, 2019). “Hong Kong protests: Twitter and Facebook crack down on “deceptive” accounts linked to China”. CBS News. Retrieved August 28, 2019.

^ “Information operations directed at Hong Kong”. Twitter Blog. August 19, 2019.

^ “China cries foul over Facebook, Twitter block of fake accounts”. Reuters. August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.

^ “China Resists Charge by Twitter, Facebook of Disinformation Effort”. The Wall Street Journal. August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 28, 2019.

^ “Ankara reacts to Twitter’s move to suspend accounts”. hurriyetdailynews. June 13, 2020.

^ Singh, Manish (May 24, 2021). “Police in India visited Twitter offices over ‘manipulated media’ label”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 27, 2021.

^ Singh, Manish (May 27, 2021). “Twitter says concerned with India intimidation, requests 3 more months to comply with new IT rules”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 27, 2021.

^ “Twitter loses immunity over user-generated content in India”. Reuters. July 6, 2021. Retrieved July 6, 2021.

^ Trivedi, Upmanyu (August 6, 2021). “Twitter Says Has Appointed Officials to Comply With India Rules”. Bloomberg News. Retrieved August 6, 2021.

^ “Twitter sued by Dutch town Bodegraven-Reeuwijk over paedophilia rumour”. BBC News. September 17, 2022. Retrieved September 20, 2022.

^ “Twitter’s sensitive media policy | Twitter Help”. Retrieved April 14, 2022.

^ “How Twitter is becoming more like OnlyFans – and what that means for users”. The Independent. March 4, 2021. Retrieved April 14, 2022.

^ “Twitter Porn: Here’s What Every Parent Needs to Know”. Bark. March 16, 2021. Retrieved April 14, 2022.

^ a b c Newton, Casey (August 30, 2022). “How Twitter’s child porn problem ruined its plans for an OnlyFans competitor”. The Verge. Retrieved September 30, 2022.

^ “Twitter Faces Claim It Benefited From Child Sex Trafficking”. Retrieved September 30, 2022.

^ “Doe v. Twitter, Inc., 555 F. Supp. 3d 889 (N.D. Cal. 2021), Court Opinion”. Retrieved September 30, 2022.

^ Dang, Sheila; Paul, Katie (September 29, 2022). “Exclusive: Brands blast Twitter for ads next to child pornography accounts”. Reuters. Retrieved September 30, 2022.

^ Lavallee, Andrew (March 16, 2007). “Friends Swap Twitters, and Frustration – New Real-Time Messaging Services Overwhelm Some Users with Mundane Updates from Friends”. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on March 14, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ Dvorak, John C. (August 25, 2009). “Twitter Is the New CB Radio”. PC Magazine.

^ Mills, Alexander; Chen, Rui; Lee, JinKyu; Rao, H. Raghav (2009). “Web 2.0 Emergency Applications: How Useful Can Twitter Be for Emergency Response?” (PDF). Twitter for Emergency Management and Mitigation: 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2016.

^ Jarvis, Brooke (March 4, 2013). “Twitter becomes a tool for tracking flu epidemics and other public health issues”. The Washington Post. Retrieved November 21, 2016.

^ Power, Robert; Robinson, Bella; Ratcliffe, David (2013). “Finding Fires with Twitter” (PDF). Proceedings of Australasian Language Technology Association Workshop. Retrieved November 21, 2016.

^ Earle, Paul; Bowden, Daniel; Guy, Michelle (2011). “Twitter earthquake detection: earthquake monitoring in a social world”. Annals of Geophysics. 54 (6). Retrieved November 21, 2016.

^ Grandjean, Martin (2016). “A social network analysis of Twitter: Mapping the digital humanities community”. Cogent Arts & Humanities. 3 (1): 1171458. doi:10.1080/23311983.2016.1171458. S2CID 114999767.

^ Rankin, M. (2010). “Some general comments on the ‘Twitter Experiment'”

^ Grosseck & Holotescu (2008). “Can we use Twitter for educational activities?” Archived May 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Proceedings of the 4th International Scientific Conference: eLearning and Software forEducation, Bucharest, Romania.

^ Elavsky, CM, Mislan, C & Elavsky, S (2011). When talking less is more: exploring outcomes of Twitter usage in the large‐lecture hall. Learning, Media and Technology Volume 36, Issue 3.

^ Junco, R., Heiberger, G., & Loken, E. (2011). “The effect of Twitter on college student engagement and grades”. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 27(2), 119–132. Archived May 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

^ Junco, R., Elavsky, C. M., Heiberger, G. (2012). “Putting Twitter to the test: assessing outcomes for student collaboration, engagement, and success”. British Journal of Educational Technology. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01284.x Archived January 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine

^ Ebner, Lienhardt, Rohs, & Meyer (2010). “Microblogs in Higher Education – A chance to facilitate informal and process-oriented learning?” Archived June 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Computers & Education, 55, 92–100.

^ a b c d e Carrie, Ross; Maninger, Robert; LaPrairie, Kimberly; Sullivan, Sam (Spring 2015). “The Use of Twitter in the Creation of Educational Professional Learning Opportunities”. Administrative Issues Journal: Connecting Education, Practice, and Research. 5: 55–76. doi:10.5929/2015.5.1.7. ISSN 2153-7615. ERIC EJ1062476.

^ a b Greenhow, Christine; Gleason, Benjamin (October 3, 2012). “Twitteracy: Tweeting as a New Literacy Practice”. The Educational Forum. 76 (4): 464–478. doi:10.1080/00131725.2012.709032. S2CID 145800002.

^ (registration required) Cohen, Noam (June 20, 2009). “Twitter on the Barricades: Six Lessons Learned”. The New York Times. Retrieved June 21, 2009.

^ Auer, Matthew (2011). “The Policy Sciences of Social Media”. Policy Studies Journal. 39 (4): 709–736. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2011.00428.x. S2CID 153590593.

^ Escoria, Julia (June 8, 2015). “Mira Gonzalez And Tao Lin’s Selected Tweets Is Deeper Than It Seems”. The Fader. Retrieved January 6, 2021.

^ Kurutz, Steven (December 1, 2009). “Rick Moody’s Twitter Short Story Draws Long List of Complaints”. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 19, 2012.

^ Carvin, Andy (February 28, 2009). “Welcome to the Twitterverse”. National Public Radio. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ Vidyarthi, Neil (April 30, 2010). “Time Magazine’s Social Influence Index Led by Obama, Gaga, Kutcher”. Retrieved February 22, 2011.

^ The Hill on February 28, 2011, described Twitter and other social media as a “strategic weapon … which have the apparent ability to re-align the social order in real time, with little or no advanced [sic] warning”.

^ a b Friar, Karen (July 28, 2012). “Sir Tim Berners-Lee stars in Olympics opening ceremony”. ZDNet. Retrieved July 28, 2012.

^ Berners-Lee, Tim [@timberners_lee] (July 27, 2012). “This is for everyone #london2012 #oneweb #openingceremony @webfoundation @w3c” (Tweet). Retrieved July 28, 2012 – via Twitter.

^ “The Impact of Twitter on Journalism | Off Book”. PBS LearningMedia. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ Chamberlain, Craig. “How has Twitter changed news coverage?”. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ “Twitter Is Not as Important as Journalists Make It Seem”. The Atlantic. February 12, 2020. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ a b c “Do journalists pay too much attention to Twitter?”. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ a b “Most major outlets have used Russian tweets as sources for partisan opinion: study”. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ Ländler, Mark (February 4, 2014). “In the Scripted World of Diplomacy, a Burst of Tweets”. International New York Times. Retrieved April 28, 2014.

^ Cellan-Jones, Rory (October 24, 2014). “Queen’s first tweet”. BBC News.

^ a b “Twiplomacy Study 2013 – International Organisations”. Retrieved April 27, 2014.

^ John Heilprin Leaders all a twitter but few do own tweets The Advertiser July 28, 2012, Pg 64

^ “A List of Cardinals on Twitter (October 2015)”. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2015.

^ Newcomb, Alyssa (March 6, 2013). “Tweeting Cardinals Share Pre-Conclave Thoughts”. ABC News. Retrieved September 24, 2013.

^ Sharkey, Linda (May 23, 2014). “The reason why the Pope has a Twitter and not a Facebook account”. The Independent. Retrieved April 11, 2016.

^ Sganga, Nicole (March 4, 2022). “Russia blocks Facebook and Twitter access”. CBS News. Retrieved March 14, 2022.

^ “Religion, Twitter and freedom: A peaceful explosion”. The Economist. May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015.

^ Branigan, Tania. “China blocks Twitter, Flickr, YouTube and Hotmail ahead of Tiananmen anniversary”. The Guardian. London.

^ Laya, Patricia (February 15, 2014). “Venezuelans Blocked on Twitter as Opposition Protests Mount”.

^ “Challenging the access ban in Turkey”.

^ “Iraq Crisis: Twitter, Google, YouTube and Facebook Blocked by Government to Stop Isis Plotting”. International Business Times UK. June 13, 2014.

^ BBC Monitoring (February 26, 2018). “Turkmenistan country profile”. BBC News.

^ “Nigeria suspends Twitter after president’s tweet was deleted”. The Guardian. Reuters. June 4, 2021. Retrieved June 4, 2021.

^ Michael Schaeffer Omer-Man (August 9, 2016). “How Israel is trying to enforce gag orders beyond its borders”. 972 Mag. Retrieved September 23, 2016.

^ “Turkey top country seeking removal of content on Twitter: Report”. hurriyet. September 20, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.

^ “Turkey had highest request for content removal on Twitter”. IPA News. May 11, 2019.

^ “United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism: Testimony of Sean J. Edgett, Acting General Counsel, Twitter Inc” (PDF). October 31, 2017. Retrieved November 6, 2017.

^ “Govt tells Twitter to block accounts inciting anti-India content using Kashmir”. Hindustan Times. August 12, 2019.

^ “Twitter removes almost 1 million tweets in Kashmir, accused of bowing to Indian censorship”. Newsweek. October 25, 2019. Retrieved November 5, 2020.

^ “Twitter Launches Tor Onion Service Making Site Easier to Access in Russia”. Retrieved May 26, 2022.

^ Robertson, Adi (March 8, 2022). “Twitter is launching a Tor service for more secure and private tweeting”. The Verge. Retrieved May 26, 2022.

^ “Twitter just suspended over 88,000 accounts tied to a Saudi disinformation campaign”. Business Insider. December 20, 2019.

^ Winder, Davey. “Twitter’s Powerful Move Silences 175,000 Chinese And Russian Fake News Accounts”. Forbes. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ “Disclosing networks of state-linked information operations we’ve removed”. Retrieved January 31, 2021.

^ “Twitter suspends government-run accounts in Cuba”. BBC News. September 12, 2019.

^ “Twitter removes accounts linked to Egypt, Saudi Arabia, other countries”. Reuters. April 2, 2020.

^ “Twitter removes hundreds of accounts it says are linked to Iran, Russia, Armenia”. Reuters. February 23, 2021.

^ “200 accounts suspended over Kashmir reported to Twitter”. Dawn. August 20, 2019.

^ “Twitter Blocks Accounts in India as Modi Pressures Social Media”. The New York Times. February 10, 2021. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021.

^ “Twitter suspends accounts defending Duterte’s COVID-19 response – report”. April 10, 2020.

^ “EmTech Stage: Twitter’s CTO on misinformation”. November 18, 2020. Retrieved November 30, 2021.

^ “Twitter ends Covid misinformation policy under Musk”. BBC News. Retrieved November 30, 2022.

^ Lyons, Kim (January 25, 2021). “Twitter launches Birdwatch, a fact-checking program intended to fight misinformation”. The Verge. Retrieved January 25, 2021.

^ Lyons, Kim (November 22, 2021). “Twitter introduces aliases for contributors to its Birdwatch moderation program”. The Verge. Retrieved November 22, 2021.

^ Perez, Sarah (March 3, 2022). “Twitter to show ‘Birdwatch’ community fact-checks to more users, following criticism”. Tech Crunch. Retrieved March 3, 2022.

^ Oremus, Will; Merrill, Jeremy B. (March 2, 2022). “As Ukraine misinformation rages, Twitter’s fact-checking tool is a no-show”. The Washington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2022.

^ Biron, Bethany. “Elon Musk said Twitter’s Birdwatch feature will be renamed ‘Community Notes’ and is aimed at ‘improving information accuracy’ amid growing content-moderation concerns”. Business Insider. Retrieved November 15, 2022.

^ a b “Twitter Agrees to Pay $809.5 Million Settlement in Shareholder Growth Lawsuit”. Time. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ Robertson, Adi (May 25, 2022). “Twitter will pay $150 million for using people’s security phone numbers to target ads”. The Verge. Retrieved May 26, 2022.

^ “Twitter sued over short-notice layoffs as Elon Musk’s takeover rocks company”. NBC News. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ “Twitter sued by workers over impending layoffs they say are illegal”. Retrieved November 6, 2022.

^ “What Shows Are Viewers Tweeting About and What Does this Mean for Operators?”. March 31, 2011. Archived from the original on April 11, 2011. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ Hayat, Tsahi; Samuel-Azran, Tal (2017). “”You too, Second Screeners?” Second Screeners’ Echo Chambers During the 2016 U.S. Elections Primaries”. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 61 (2): 291–308. doi:10.1080/08838151.2017.1309417. S2CID 148973729.

^ “Social Web Makes TV Viewers ‘Chatterboxers'”, Sky News, March 15, 2012 Archived March 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine

^ “Twitter Blog: Super Data”. February 10, 2010. Retrieved May 22, 2011.

^ “Does Twitter Drive TV Ratings?”. Archived from the original on November 1, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.

^ “France bans Facebook and Twitter promotion on TV”. FRANCE 24. June 6, 2011. Retrieved November 14, 2011.

^ a b Shontell, Alyson (February 4, 2013). “Twitter Makes Big Acquisition, Buys Social TV Analytics Company Bluefin Labs”. Business Insider. Retrieved February 6, 2013.

^ “Twitter Has Become the New TV Guide – Now Can It Offer New TV Rating?”. Advertising Age. Crain. October 23, 2012. Retrieved February 6, 2013.

^ Stelter, Brian (February 5, 2013). “Twitter Buys Company That Mines Chatter About TV”. The New York Times. Retrieved February 6, 2013.

^ Talbot, David (February 5, 2013). “Buying Bluefin Will Give Twitter a Piece of TV’s $72 Billion Ad Market”. MIT Technology Review. Retrieved February 6, 2013.

^ Indvik, Lauren (May 23, 2013). “Twitter Amplify Will Bring Sponsored Video Clips to Your Feed”. Mashable. Retrieved May 25, 2014.

^ Lunden, Ingrid (May 23, 2013). “Twitter Launches TV Ad Targeting, Twitter Amplify For Real-Time Videos In Stream”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 25, 2014.

^ “‘See It’ Button Should Be the Game-Changer Pay TV Desperately Needs”. Variety. November 24, 2013. Retrieved May 12, 2017.

^ Constine, Josh (May 21, 2014). “Facebook Adds Shazam-Style Audio Recognition To Help You Automatically Tag Posts With TV Shows And Songs”. TechCrunch. Retrieved May 26, 2014.

^ Protalinski, Emil (January 30, 2014). “Facebook opens up its social TV data for the first time in partnership with UK analytics firm SecondSync”. The Next Web. Retrieved June 1, 2014.

^ Hern, Alex (April 1, 2014). “Twitter buys UK ‘social TV’ firm SecondSync”. The Guardian. Retrieved June 1, 2014.

^ Wasserman, Todd (February 27, 2014). “Twitter Snags the Last of the Major Networks, ABC, for Amplify”. Mashable. Retrieved May 25, 2014.

^ Plunkett, John (March 31, 2014). “ITV commercial boss warns brands that 90% of content is ‘crap'”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved April 12, 2014.

^ Summers, Nick (March 20, 2014). “Twitter is testing one-tap video playback across its mobile apps for Amplify partner clips”. The Next Web. Retrieved May 26, 2014.

^ Bradwell, Jason (July 2, 2014). “Why Did Twitter Buy SnappyTV? Grabyo Reaction”. VOD Professional. Archived from the original on August 28, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2014.

^ Sawers, Paul (June 19, 2014). “Twitter’s evolution as a broadcasting platform continues as it acquires live-TV clipping service SnappyTV”. The Next Web. Retrieved August 28, 2014.

^ Sawyers, Paul (June 10, 2014). “Wimbledon ‘near-live’ highlights will be broadcast globally across Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and YouTube”. TNW. Retrieved June 12, 2014.

^ Lunden, Ingrid (July 25, 2017). “Twitter confirms it is winding down SnappyTV, shifting features to Media Studio”. TechCrunch. Retrieved July 25, 2017.

^ DeGeneres, Ellen (March 2, 2014). “If only Bradley’s arm was longer. Best photo ever. #oscars”. Twitter. Retrieved November 15, 2022.

^ “Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record”. BBC News. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.

^ a b BBC Trending (March 3, 2014). “#BBCtrending: Selfie at Oscars breaks retweet record”. BBC News. Retrieved July 28, 2014.

^ “Ellen DeGeneres’ Selfie at Oscars Sets Retweet Record, Crashes Twitter”. The Ledger. Associated Press. March 3, 2014. Archived from the original on March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 3, 2014.

^ Hubbard, Amy (March 2, 2014). “Oscars 2014, the year of the selfie: Ellen tweet grabs retweet record”. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 7, 2014.

^ @Twitter (May 10, 2017). “@carterjwm 👆 It’s official. Carter, your Tweet is the most Retweeted of all time. #NuggsForCarter” (Tweet). Retrieved May 9, 2017 – via Twitter.

^ “The 20 Most-Retweeted Tweets”. July 30, 2020. Retrieved November 15, 2022.

^ Oremus, Will (August 19, 2013). “Balse Festival: Japan “Castle in the Sky” airing breaks Twitter record for tweets per second”. Slate. Retrieved June 26, 2014.

^ Ashcraft, Brian. “How an Old Japanese Anime Broke a Twitter Record”. Kotaku. Retrieved August 31, 2018.

^ “Fans in the Philippines & around the world sent 41M Tweets mentioning #ALDubEBTamangPanahon”. Twitter Data Verified Account. October 27, 2015. Retrieved October 30, 2015.

^ Mendoza, Arvin (October 25, 2015). “‘AlDub’ breaks FIFA World Cup’s Twitter record”. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 25, 2015.

^ Tomchak, Anne-Marie (July 9, 2014). “#BBCtrending: Brazil’s World Cup thrashing breaks Twitter records”. BBC Online. Retrieved July 9, 2014.

^ “Fastest time to reach one million followers on Twitter”. Guinness World Records. April 12, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2015.

^ Parkinson, Hannah Jane (June 2, 2015). “Caitlyn Jenner smashes Twitter world record, reaching a million followers”. the Guardian. Retrieved May 20, 2022.

Further reading

External links


Rahul Ligma


Lucy Lightfoot

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Check Also

Literary forgery